Thursday, February 16, 2017

Our Earliest Fur Trade Ancestors and How they Fit Together

Pedigree for Joseph Pinsonneau  (1733-1779) 5th great-grandfather

Anne Godefroy (1615-1678) (my 9th great grandmother) daughter of Pierre Godefroy de Linctot (1585-1666) and Perrette Cavalier (1590-1636). Married 1630 to Jean Testard dit Lafontaine (1612-1705). Arrived in New France about 1652.

Jean Godefroy de Linctot, Sieur (1607-1678) (brother of Anne Godefroy and my 10th great grand uncle), also a son of Pierre Godefroy de Linctot (1585-1666) and Perrette Cavalier (1590-1636). In 1626, he arrived in New France with Samuel de Champlain, and served in the capacity of interpreter. After 1629, and the capture of Quebec by the Kirkes (England), he stayed on in the colony, living in the woods with the Indians. Married 1636 Marie Le Neuf (1612 - 1688)

Jeanne Testard (1642-1723) (my 8th great grandmother) daughter of Jean Testard dit Lafontaine (1612-1705) and Anne Godefroy (1615-1678). Jeanne was a Fille à Marier, arriving in New France before 1662. Married 1662 to Francois Leber (Lebert) (1626-1694)

Francois Leber (Lebert) (1626-1694) (my 8th great-grandfather) son of Robert LeBer (1601-1625) and Colette Cavelier (1605-1694). In 1688, voyageur to the 8ta8ats (Ottawa Country). Married (1) to BEF 1656 to Marguerite Leseur (1628-1662) (2) 1662 to Jeanne Testard (1642-1723) (8th great-grandmother).

Francois Leber (Lebert) (1626-1694) was the brother of Jacques Leber (Lebert) dit Larose (1633-1706) (my 9th great-uncle) also the son of Robert LeBer (1601-1625) and Colette Cavelier (1605-1694). Between 1669-1687, he was a partner in Lachine's first Fur Trading Post (1669-1687). Married 1658 to Jeanne Le Moyne (1635-1682) (sister of Charles Le Moyne Sieur de Longueuil (1626-1685).

Francois Pinsonnault dit LaFleur (1646-1731) (my 7th great-grandfather). In 1666 he served with the Carignan-Salieres Regiment and fought against the Iroquois. Married 1673 to Anne Leper (1647-1732) (my 7th great-grandmother) who was a (Filles du Roi, or King's Daughter).

Francois Bourassa (1659-1708) (my 7th great-grandfather) son of Francois Bourassa (1630-1684) and Marguerite Dugas (1635-1698).

Francois Bourassa (1659-1708) and his sons: Rene Bourassa dit LaRonde (1688-1778), Francois Joachim Bourassa (1698-1775), and Antoine Bourassa (1705-1780), were coureurs de bois and became known as "the fathers of the fur trade."

In 1686, François Bourassa made a voyage to Hudson Bay for the Compagnie du Nord. In 1688, René Legardeur, sieur de Beauvais, hired François Bourassa and Joachim Jacques Leber to make a voyage des 8ta8ats (Ottawa Indians). In 1690 René Legardeur hired Pierre Bourdeau, André Babeu, François Bourassa, and Joachim Leber for a voyage to Michilimackinac. Also in 1690, Pierre Bourdeau consented to a debt for merchandise from André Babeau, Joachim Leber, and François Bourassa, voyageurs, for their voyage to the Ottawa. Married 1668 to Marie Le Ber (1666-1756) (my 7th great-grandmother) daughter of Francois Leber (Lebert) (1626-1694) and Jeanne Testard (1642-1723), her father Francois Leber was active in the fur trade.

NOTES:


Samuel de Champlain (1567-1635), French explorer and colonial statesman. He established a settlement at Quebec in Canada in 1608 and developed alliances with the native peoples. He was appointed lieutenant governor in 1612.

Sir David Kirke (c. 1597–1654) was an adventurer, colonizer and governor for the king of England. He and his brothers are best known for their successful capture of New France in 1629 during the Thirty Years' War.

filles à marier, (1634 and 1663) 262 “marriageable girls” emigrated to New France representing one quarter of all the single girls arriving in New France through 1673.

Lachine's first fur trading post, Le Ber-Le Moyne House is the oldest complete building in Montreal, Quebec, Canada. It is located in the borough of Lachine, bordering the Saint Lawrence River, ... Ville Marie's richest merchants, Jacques Le Ber and Charles Le Moyne bought the land from Cavelier de La Salle to construct Lachine's first fur trading post (1669-1687).

Carignan-Salieres Regiment, In 1665 King Louis XVI ordered the Carignan-Salieres Regiment to Canada to help save the Royal Colony from destruction at the hands of the Iroquois. Between June and September 1665, some twenty-four companies of 1200 soldiers and their officers of the Carignan-Salières Regiment arrived in Quebec, under the leadership of Lt. General Alexander de Prouville, Sieur de Tracy. Launched almost immediately upon arrival to attack the Indians in the dead of winter, the regiment was almost destroyed. Within months though it had stabilized the French situation and ensured the survival of the colony. Following their service, many members of the Regiment stayed on in Canada. The Carignan-Salieres Regiment was the first regular military unit to serve in Canada.

Filles du Roi, Also called the King's Daughters, were some 770 women who arrived in the colony of New France (Canada) between 1663 and 1673, under the financial sponsorship of King Louis XIV of France. Most were single French women and many were orphans.

Coureurs Des Bois, (French pronunciation: [kuʁœʁ de bwa]) or coureur de bois (French pronunciation: [kuʁœʁ də bwa], runner of the woods; plural: coureurs de bois) was an independent entrepreneurial French-Canadian woodsman who traveled in New France and the interior of North America. Usually unlicensed and after 1691, were considered outlaws.

Voyageur, (especially in Canada) a boatman employed by the fur companies in transporting goods and passengers to and from trading posts (usually by canoe). Voyageurs are generally licensed and legal.

8ta8ats (Ottawa Indians)
, is "Land of the Witawiats" which finally became "Outaouais" in French. They are an Algonquian tribe living in the vicinity of Calumet Island above Ottawa. Ottawa is the English pronunciation of Outaouais.

Michilimackinac, a place where fur traders and Indians rendezvoused, is derived from an Odawa name for present-day Mackinac Island and the region around the Straits of Mackinac between Lake Huron and Lake Michigan.


Monday, February 6, 2017

Ripples from La Prairie Voyageur Canoes

1692, Voyageur contract for Gabriel Lemieux

Outline Draft Revised Feb. 11, 2017

With 200 years of French-Canadian history, 115+ fur trade ancestors, and a geography that stretches from the Atlantic to the Pacific this is an almost overwhelming task to organize. Check out the daily updates as it progresses.
 
Introduction

Early on, during my youth, I became fascinated with mountain men and the fur trade. I still recall seeing the 1951, movie, Across the Wide Missouri, in Technicolor, at a theater. I was hooked, what could be better than living off the land while trapping beaver in the Rocky Mountains.

Davy Crockett, King of the Wild Frontier, 1955
In the years that followed Walt Disney TV gave us Fess Parker as Davy Crocket in the 1950s and Daniel Boone in the 1960s.

Those exciting TV episodes were soon followed, in the 1970s and 1980s, by more Mountain Man films, including Jeremiah Johnson (1972), The Life and Times of Grizzly Adams -- TV Series (1977–1978), Centennial -- TV miniseries (1978–1979), and The Mountain Men (1980).  

There was something magical about those early trappers and explorers known as Mountain Man and Voyageurs.  Between 1600, and the 1880s, they were the first to go into unmapped wilderness to discover the river routes, and establish the trails that would eventually become pathways for the folks who would settle the West.

I often wondered what is was like to shoot a muzzleloading rifle, throw a tomahawk, sleep in a tipi, or paddle canoe on the Missouri River.

Then in the 1980s and 1990s, I discovered 'Buckskinning' -- folks who enjoy shooting muzzleloading rifles, dressing in 1840s period clothing, and living a Mountain Man lifestyle.

Buckskinner gatherings were called Rendezvous reenactments. They were modeled after the Rocky Mountain gatherings where the trappers met with the dealers to trade their furs for supplies, tobacco, and whiskey. The National Muzzleloading Rifle Association sponsored most rendezvous events and membership was required for attendance.

For me there is no better way to learn about our nations history than go live it for a few days at a historical reenactment. Rendezvous reenactments can be fun for the whole family.  All you need to get started is some period clothing -- a 1840s style shirt, voyageur's tuque and sash, a string of trade beads, and an old pair of corduroy pants worked for me in the photo below.

Wind River, Western National Rendezvous, 1987

When I selected a voyageur costume as my attire for that early Rendezvous reenactment I remember thinking about the 'Pasquinel' character played by Robert Conrad in the 1978, Centennial miniseries. Pasquinel was a French Canadian fur trader who had gone out to the Rocky Mountains to trade for beaver pelts.

I had learned a few years earlier, in 1972, from an aunt who was studying our family history, that we had a French-Canadian ancestor named Passino. I didn't know anything about our Passino, but I remember thinking it would be fun to find out he was a fur trader.

Fast forward to 2011, using the internet I had been seeking information about my Passino ancestry for more than a dozen years, when I discovered the name had been anglicized from Pinsonneau. (See the chapter titled, "The French Canadian Heritage of Lucy Pinsonneault."

A few weeks, after that discovery, I learned our Pinsonneau lineage began in 1665, when 1,300 soldiers arrived with the Carignan-Salières Regiment in New France (Canada) to fight the Iroquois. I soon discovered my lineage goes back to François Pinsonneau dit Lafleur (1646-1731), my 7th great-grandfather, a soldier in the Saint-Ours Company of the Carignan-Salières Regiment. He arrived on the ship La Justice 14 September 1665.

It turns out, not only are there some fur traders in our family tree, but so far I have documented well over a hundred French-Canadian ancestors linked to the fur trade between the 1620s and 1850s.  My ancestors all came from villages in the the Province of Quebec. They came from the environs Quebec, Trois-Rivières, and Montreal, but the vast majority were either born, married, or buried in La Prairie de la Magdeleine

Since my breakthrough discovery I have continued researching my French-Canadian ancestry, and during the past couple of years I have been publishing vignette biographies of some of my voyageur ancestors on my blog, http://a-drifting-cowboy.blogspot.com/.

The following work most assuredly has errors and omissions. I am not making excuses, but you must consider most of the documentation comes from 200 year-old perish priest's records and notary files. The ancestors themselves were mostly illiterate, so the person recording the information relied on their own best effort at spelling names.

The fact that I was born in the the United States, and don't speak or write French doesn't help. Finally, you must consider the use of 'dit' (or also called) names, which were sometimes switched back and forth for multiple generations.

Oh! By the way I have learned what it is like to shoot a muzzleloader, throw a tomahawk, sleep in a tipi, and paddle a canoe down the Missouri River, but that's another story.

I hope you enjoy the little stories contained in Ripples from La Prairie Voyageur Canoes.


La Prairie de la Magdeleine


La Prairie de la Magdeleine is an off-island suburb southeast of Montreal, at the confluence of the Saint-Jacques River and the Saint Lawrence River.

French Jesuits were the first Europeans to occupy the area, which was named La Prairie de la Magdeleine but was also called François-Xavier-des-Prés. The land was given to the Jesuits by Jacques de La Ferté and the Company of One Hundred Associates in 1647.

The Jesuits settled their seigneury in 1667, La Prairie de la Magdeleine first developed around the mission where only a few Frenchmen and many Onneiouts [one of the six Iroquois nations] who had converted to Christianity were concentrated.

Early on, because of problems of cohabitation, the Amerindian mission moved westward leaving the site only to settlers from France.

La Prairie de la Magdeleine was an area of woods, prairies, lakes, rivers and stone quarries which was suitable for farming.

A flour mill was built there, and in 1687 a wooden palisade, which in 1691 was used to repel an attack by English-Iroquois mercenaries led by Pieter Schuyler from New England.

A few years later, a small wooden church was erected and little by little a village was born.

As Iroquois hostilities diminished La Prairie de la Magdeleine began to grow between 1694 and 1697.

The majority of the first colonists came from Montreal, with a few from the Carignan-Salieres Regiment including Charles Diel dit Le Petit Breton (1652-1702) (my 8th great-grandfather). New residents who sought refuge there, included merchants, craftsmen and skilled workers.

By 1670, the population of settlers was significant enough to open the seigneurial administration for LaPrairie de la Madeleine and also to establish the parish of St. Francois Xavier with the building of a chapel for the Indians and habitants on the seigneur’s estate bordering the river.

Relations between the early settlers and the Indians were friendly, although many of the Indians soon left as the land was being settled.

Until 1676 when the native mission moved to the place called Kahnawake, at the mouth of the Portage River, settlers worshipped with the Indians and would have had ample opportunity to learn native languages.

Most would have also heard the tales told by soldiers of the Carignan-Salières Regiment who returned and settled at La Prairie.

From the soldiers, Iroquois and early coureurs de bois they may have learned about the routes used to conduct fur trade with the Dutch in New York.

Young men made trips to the Iroquois or Ottawa, either as an assistant to the Jesuits or as a helpers for older coureurs de bois.

By the end of 1673, the population of habitants in the seigneury was fifty-one men, thirty-six of them unmarried, fifteen women, of which six had come as girls from Montreal, and thirty-three children.

Voyageurs and the fur trade


Two good canoe routes from the La Prairie de la Madeleine area reached directly to the best beaver pelts on the continent.

A trip by the Ottawa and Mattawa Rivers was fairly safe from the Iroquois and English attacks but required much portaging. The other route through the upper St. Lawrence and the lakes to Niagara, Detroit, Michilimackinac and Green Bay passed through a long stretch where voyageurs were threatened by Iroquois interference.

Voyageurs [usually licensed and under contract with fur trade merchants] were primarily in the business of bringing merchandise to central depots and hauling furs from the depots to Montreal.

By the 1670’s, some of the habitants began to fan out to deal with the Indians in their own territories. Called “coureurs des bois,” a name which means “wood runner,” they were [usually unlicensed] seen as outlaws because they traded illegally in the eyes of the French authorities and independently.

They enjoyed the adventure, money, the beauty of nature, and a life free of conformity and the harsh work of farming. Living closely with the
Indians, they adapted to Indian ways and dress, and soon were as skilled as the Indians in the ways of the forest. Most cared little for tomorrow. This lifestyle appealed more strongly to the French temperament than to that of any other European race.

One coureurs des bois reported that, “there is no life so happy, none so independent, no place where a man enjoys so much variety and freedom as in the Indian country.” These wandering coureurs des bois were perplexing to the authorities.

Even when Louis XIV decreed that the first offense for being a coureurs des bois would be flogging, a second offense branding with the Fleur de Lys, and a third offense punished by life in the galleys or by the death penalty, this mattered little to men who didn’t intend to get caught a first time.

Many people in New France conspired to protect the coureurs des bois from the law. When they were hauled before a judge, they were usually at most fined and turned loose to continue their trade.

Among the early pioneers at La Prairie de la Madeleine, most of the able-bodied men were either coureurs des bois or voyageurs, often serving in both capacities at different times.

A tradition developed in families where older experienced men cared for the younger sons of habitants.

All three sons of Pierre Peras (Perras) dit La Fontaine (1616-1684) (my 9th great-grandfather) and his wife Denise Lemaitre (1635-1691) (my 9th great-grandmother) (Pierre, Jean and Jacques Perras) were involved in the fur trade, as were their sons-in-law, Pierre Poupart (1653-1699) (my 8th great-grandfather), and Antoine Jacques Boyer (1671-1747) (my 8th great-grandfather).

The involvement of whole families in the fur trade is obvious. Not only was our ancestor Jacques Deneau (Deniau) dit Destaillis (1660-1720) (my 7th great-grandfather), involved but his brother Charles Marin Deneau dit Destaillis (1663-1708) (my 8th great-uncle) and a total of 19 Deneau family members are listed on 69 voyageur trips.

Ten members of the Boyer family, including Antoine Jacques Boyer (1671-1747) (my 8th great-grandfather), the husband of Marie Perras (1673-1736) (my 8th great-grandmother), his son Charles, and his grandson Charles are listed on 31 voyageur trips.

In all more than 2249 contract records of voyageurs are listed for La Prairie de la Magdeleine residents, while these lists do not include the trips these same men made on their own as coureurs des bois.

By 1697, the fortification enclosed 120 persons, among them Charles Marin Deneau dit Destaillis (1663-1708) (my 8th great-uncle) and Jacques Deneau (Deniau) dit Destaillis (1660-1720) (my 7th great-grandfather), Francois Leber (Lebert) (1626-1694) (my 8th great-grandfather), and  Francois Bourassa (1659-1708) (my 7th great-grandfather). Francois Leber (Lebert) (1626-1694) (my 8th great-grandfather) and his three sons Joachim Jacques Leber (1664-1695), Francois Leber (1673-1746), and Claude Leber (1674-1674) became known as the fathers of the fur trade.

Francois Bourassa

The story of the Bourassa family is somewhat typical of the times. A native of France, Francois Bourassa married Marie Le Ber (1666-1756) (my 7th great-grandmother), the daughter of La Prairie de la Magdeleine pioneers Francois Leber (Lebert) (1626-1694) (my 8th great-grandfather) and Jeanne Testard (1642-1723) (my 8th great-grandmother). After five years of marriage, Francois was captured during a skirmish with the Iroquois and presumed dead but returned after a prolonged absence.

Francis and Marie Bourassa had seven children, with five living to adulthood. Their daughter, Marie Elisabeth Bourassa (1695-1766) (my 6th great-grandmother), married Jacques Pinsonneau dit Lafleur (1682-1773) (my 6th great-grandfather). Francois Bourassa had two concessions of land and also a home in the village of La Prairie de la Magdeleine, but had prospered even more by being involved as a fur trader in the west.

When Francois died at age 48 in an epidemic at Montreal, Marie married a third time to Pierre Herve. Like most of the families of La Prairie de la Magdeleine at this time, the Bourassa family watched their sons head west to make a profit in the fur trade.

Fur Trade Ancestors -- French-Canadian History for Two Centuries


1600s

1608 - Sponsored by King Henry IV , Samuel de Champlain founds Quebec City on July 3.

1609 - Champlain joins a military expedition against the Iroquois. The Hurons and their French allies are victorious.

1610s

1610 - Étienne Brûlé is sent by Champlain to live among the Hurons to learn their language.

1612 - October 15, Champlain is made lieutenant of the vice-roi in New France.

1613 - Acadia is taken by the troops of Samuel Argall.

1615 - Arrival of the Récollets from Rouen on June 9.

1620s

1625 - Arrival of the Jesuits.

1627 - Armand Jean du Plessis, Cardinal de Richelieu founds the Compagnie de la Nouvelle France on April 29. King Louis XIII of France will grant them the monopoly on fur trade in return for their help in colonizing the St. Lawrence valley.

1627 - King Louis XIII of France introduces the seigneurial system and forbids settlement in New France by anyone other than Roman Catholics.

1629 - On July 16, three brothers, David, Louis, and Thomas Kirke take Quebec.

Jean-Baptiste Godefroy de Linctot, Sieur (10th great grand uncle)
son of Pierre Godefroy de Linctot (1585 - 1666) and Perrette Cavalier (1590 - 1636)
• 1626, arrived in New France with Samuel de Champlain, and served in the capacity of interpreter.
• After 1629, and the capture of Quebec by the Kirkes (England), he stayed on in the colony, living in the woods with the Indians.
Birth ABT 1607 in Lintot, pays de Caux, en Normandie, France
Death 1681 in Trois-Rivières, Canada
Marriage 1636 Marie Le Neuf (1612 - 1688)
http://a-drifting-cowboy.blogspot.com/2016/07/great-grandmothers-brothers-came-with.html

Thomas Godefroy de Normanville (10th great grand uncle)
son of Pierre Godefroy de Linctot (1585 - 1666) and Perrette Cavalier (1590 - 1636)
• 1626, arrived in New France with Samuel de Champlain, and served in the capacity of interpreter.
• After 1629, and the capture of Quebec by the Kirkes (England), he stayed on in the colony, living in the woods with the Indians.
Birth ABOUT 1610 • France
Death 1652 • Iroquois country (Huronia?), Canada
http://a-drifting-cowboy.blogspot.com/2016/07/great-grandmothers-brothers-came-with.html

Anne Godefroy (1615–1678) (9th great grandmother)
daughter of Pierre Godefroy de Linctot (1585 - 1666) and Perrette Cavalier (1590 - 1636)
Birth 1615 • Rouen, Seine-Maritime, Haute-Normandie, France
Death 26 MAR 1678 • Rouen, Seine-Maritime, Haute-Normandie, France
Marriage 1630 to Jean Testard dit Lafontaine (1612–1705)
http://a-drifting-cowboy.blogspot.com/2013/08/cowboy-legacy-great-granddad-was-fur.html

1630s

1630s Furs were regularly leaving New France for Europe. These furs were mainly supplied by Indian traders, especially the Huron and Ottawa tribes. In Wisconsin the Winnebago tribes blocked the fur trade routes. They were attacked and defeated by the Ottawa and Huron. New tribes such as the Sauk, Fox, Potawatomi, and Ojibwe began moving into the area that is now Wisconsin.

1632 - Signing of the Treaty of Saint-Germain-en-Laye on March 29. Acadia and Quebec are givenback to France.

1632 - The Couillard-Hébert family receives the colony’s first slave. He is a black boy from the West Indies. See Slavery in Canada.

1632 - Gabriel Sagard publishes Le Grand Voyage au pays des Hurons (The Great Voyage in Huron country) and a dictionary of the Huron language.

1634 - Sieur de La Violette founds a fur trading post and a fort, which later becomes the town of Trois-Rivières.

1634 - Hurons begin to drive out the Jesuits as disease decimates the Hurons.

1634 - Jean Nicolet traveled through the Great Lakes to Green Bay on what is now Lake Michigan, and claims all the land in this area for France.

1635 - The Jesuits found the Collège de Québec.

1635 - Samuel de Champlain dies on December 25.

1636 - Arrival of the new governor Charles Huault de Montmagny on June 12.

1639 - Foundation of the Société de Notre-Dame de Montréal.

1639 - Arrival of the Ursulines and the Hospitalières in the colony.

Zacharie Cloutier (1590–1677) (10th great-grandfather)
son of Denis Cloutier (1565–1633) and Renee Briere (1570–1608)
• 1634, hired to assist Samuel de Champlain in “inhabiting, clearing, cultivating and planting” New France.
Birth 18 JUL 1590 • Mortagne-au-Perche, Departement de l'Orne, Basse-Normandie, France
Death 17 SEP 1677 • Chateau-Richer, Capitale-Nationale Region, Quebec, Canada
Marriage 1616 to Xainte Dupont (1596–1680)
http://a-drifting-cowboy.blogspot.com/2016/07/pioneer-ancestors-that-settled-in.html

Xainte Dupont (1596–1680) (10th great-grandmother)
daughter of Paul Michel Dupont (1566–1608) and Perrine Unknown (1571–1596)
• 1634, arrived in New France with husband Zacharie Cloutier.
Birth 1596 • Mortagne, Orne, Basse-Normandie, France
Death 13 JUL 1680 • Chateau Richer, Quebec, Canada
http://a-drifting-cowboy.blogspot.com/2016/07/pioneer-ancestors-that-settled-in.html

Louise Cloutier (1632–1699) (9th great-grandmother)
daughter of Zacharie Cloutier (1590–1677) and Xainte Dupont (1596–1680)
• 1634, arrived in New France with father Zacharie Cloutier.
Birth 18 MAR 1632 • Mortagne, Orne, Basse-Normandie, France
Death 22 JUN 1699 • Chateau Richer, Quebec, Canada
Married (2) 1648 to Jean Mignault dit Chatillon (1622–1680)
http://a-drifting-cowboy.blogspot.com/2016/07/pioneer-ancestors-that-settled-in.html

Philippe Amiot (Amyot) dit Villeneuve (1602–1639) (9th great-grandfather)
son of Georges Elie Amyot (1570–1620) and Louise Chichon (1580–1610)
• 1636, Coureur de bois near Trois-Rivières.
Birth 1602 • Soissons, Aisne, Picardie, France
Death 26 AUG 1639 • Québec, Quebec, Canada
Marriage 1625 to Anne Convent (1605–1675)
http://a-drifting-cowboy.blogspot.com/2016/07/pioneer-ancestors-that-settled-in.html

Robert Caron (1612–1656) (9th great-grandfather)
son of Rene Edouard Caron (1592–1656)
• Not much is known of Robert Caron, other than the fact that he arrived in New France on June 11, 1636.
Birth 1612 • Bénouville, Calvados, Basse-Normandie, France
Death 8 JUL 1656 • Hotel Dieu, Quebec, Canada
Marriage 1637 to Marie Crevet (1609–1695)
http://a-drifting-cowboy.blogspot.com/2016/07/pioneer-ancestors-that-settled-in.html

Marie Crevet (1609–1695) (9th great-grandmother)
her parents are unknown
• she arrived in New France on June 11, 1636.
Birth 1609 • Caen, Calvados, Basse-Normandie, France
Death 22 NOV 1695 • Baie St Paul, Quebec, France
Marriage 1637 to Robert Caron (1612–1656)
http://a-drifting-cowboy.blogspot.com/2016/07/pioneer-ancestors-that-settled-in.html

Louis Sédillot dit Montreuil (1601–1672) (9th great-grandfather)
parents unknown
• 1637, Louis arrived in Québec, where he obtained work from the "Company of One Hundred Associates" clearing and planting land. 
Birth ABOUT 1601 • Montreuil-sur-Breche, Departement de l'Oise, Picardie, France
Death 25 JAN 1672 • Notre Dame, Quebec, Canada
Marriage (1) 1626 to Marie Challe Charier (1606–1636)
Marriage (2) 1633 to +Marie Grimoult (1606–1672)
http://a-drifting-cowboy.blogspot.com/2016/07/pioneer-ancestors-that-settled-in.html

Denise Sevestre (1632–1700) (9th great-aunt)
daughter of Charles Sevestre (1607–1657) and Marie Plichon (Pichon) (1605–1661) (9th great-grandmother)
• Denise Sevestre arrived in Quebec 1636, and became a Mother of Voyageurs.
Birth 1632 • Paris, France
Death 14 DEC 1700 • Quebec, Quebec, Canada
Denise married twice…
Marriage (1) 1646 to Antoine Martin (1620–1659)
Children of Denise Sevestre and Antoine Martin:
i. Charles Martin dit Montpellier 1651–1715
ii. Antoine Martin dit Montpellier Beaulieu 1654–1715
iii. Jean-François Martin dit Montpellier 1658–1674
Marriage (2) 1659 to Philipe Neveu (Nepveu) (1634–1720)
Children of Denise Sevestre and Philipe Neveu (Nepveu):
i. Jacques Nepveu (Neveu) 1667–1722
ii. Charles Neveu 1671–1705
iii. Jean Baptiste Neveu (Nepveu) 1676–1754
http://a-drifting-cowboy.blogspot.com/2016/07/great-aunt-denise-was-mother-of.html

1640s

1641 - Beginning of the French and Iroquois Wars on June 13.

1641 - Arrival of Jeanne Mance on August 8.

1642 - Joe Chomedey de Maisonneuve and Jeanne Mance found Ville-Marie , today Montréal on May 17.

1643 - Arrival of Louis d'Ailleboust de Coulonge et d'Argentenay , officer and military engineer.

1647 - Creation of the Conseil de Québec on March 27.

1648 - Beginning of the genocide of the Huron peoples by the Iroquois confederacy.

1648 - Louis d'Ailleboust becomes governor of New France after the refusal of Maisonneuve to take the position.

1648 - The Huron country is destroyed and fleeing Hurons are relocated to Ile d'Orleans with the help of governor d'Ailleboust. Wyandot people|

Jean Mignault dit Chatillon (1622–1680) (9th great-grandfather)
son of Nicolas Mignault (1600–1648) and Madeleine DeBrie (1600–1648)
• 1648, Governor Montmagny sent Jean Mignault to the (le pays des Hurons) "Huron's Country" to invite them to the fur trade.
Birth 20 APR 1622 • Nanterre, Hauts-de-Seine, Ile-de-France, France
Death 1680 • Montmorency, Quebec, Canada
Marriage 1648 to Louise Cloutier (1632–1699)
http://a-drifting-cowboy.blogspot.com/2016/06/great-granddad-jean-canoes-to-huron.html

Jean Amiot (Amyot) (1630 - 1648) (9th great-uncle)
son of Philippe Amiot (Amyot) dit Villeneuve (1602–1639) and Anne Convent (1605–1675)
• 1640s, Interpreter and indentured employee of the Jesuits he spent several years in the Huron country.
Birth ABT 1630 • France
Death 1648 • Quebec, Canada
unmarried
http://a-drifting-cowboy.blogspot.com/2016/06/it-must-be-in-my-genes_29.html

Mathieu Amiot (Amyot) Sieur de Villeneuve (1628–1688) (8th great-grandfather)
son of Philippe Amiot (Amyot) dit Villeneuve (1602–1639) and Anne Convent (1605–1675)
• 1640s, Interpreter and fur trader for the Jesuits in the Huron country.
Birth 23 MAY 1628 • Estrees, Soissons, Ile-de-France, France
Death 18 DEC 1688 • Québec, Quebec, Canada
Marriage 1650 to Marie Catherine Miville (1632–1702)
http://a-drifting-cowboy.blogspot.com/2016/06/it-must-be-in-my-genes_29.html

Mathurin Gagnon (1606 - 1690) (11th great-uncle)
son of Pierre Gagnon (1572–1630) and Renée Madeleine Roger (1570–1640)
• 1645-63, was a member of Communauté des habitants (Compagnie des habitants), colonial merchants who held the fur trade monopoly in New France.  He and his bothers Jean and Pierre operated a general store and became outfitters in the Lower Quebec. Arrival 1635, Quebec, Canada.
Birth 22 OCT 1606 • Tourouvre, Orne, Basse-Normandie, France
Death 20 APR 1690 • Chateau-Richer, Capitale-Nationale Region, Quebec, Canada
Marriage 1647 to Françoise Boudeau (–1699)
http://a-drifting-cowboy.blogspot.com/2016/08/a-canoe-load-of-french-canadian.html

1650s

1651 - Jean de Lauzon becomes governor of New France.

1653 - The population of Quebec now stands at 2,000.

1657 - Arrival of the Roman Catholic Sulpician Order in Montreal.

1657 - Pierre de Voyer d'Argenson replaces Jean de Lauzon as governor of New France.

1659 - François de Laval becomes the first bishop of New France.

1659 - Radisson and Grosseiliers made an unlicensed trip into the interior. They built a trading post at Chequamagon Bay on Lake Superior and claimed to have found a portage into the west. Was this Grand Portage?

Denis Duquet (1605–1675) (8th great-grandfather)
son of Joseph Duquet and Jeanne Barbie
• 1659, member of the "Traite de Tadoussac," the first fur-trading post in European North America (established in 1600, eight years before the founding of Québec City)
Birth ABT 1605 • La Rochelle, Aunis, France
Death 26 NOV 1675 • Québec, Quebec, Canada
Marriage 1638 to Catherine Gautier (1625–1702)
http://a-drifting-cowboy.blogspot.com/2016/05/great-granddad-was-member-of-traite-de.htmlhttp://a-drifting-cowboy.blogspot.com/2016/05/great-granddad-was-member-of-traite-de.html

Charles Amiot (Amyot) (1636-1669) (9th great-uncle)
son of Philippe Amiot (Amyot) dit Villeneuve (1602–1639) and Anne Convent (1605–1675)
• 1650, fur-trader and merchant; educated at the Jesuit college and accompanied Father Bressani as a servant to the Huron country.
Birth 26 AUG 1636 • Quebec, Canada
Death 10 DEC 1669 • Cap-Saint-Ignace, Quebec, Canada
Marriage 1660 to Genevieve De Chavigny (1645–1724)
http://a-drifting-cowboy.blogspot.com/2016/06/it-must-be-in-my-genes_29.html

1660s

1660 - Dollard des Ormeaux dies at Long Sault on the Ottawa River.

1661 - Louis XIV puts his minister Jean-Baptiste Colbert in charge of reorganizing the administration of New France on March 16.

1661 - Pierre DuBois, baron Davaugour becomes governor of New France.

1663 - New France becomes a royal province under Louis XIV. The Sovereign Council is created to administer the colonies under the absolute authority of the King.

1663 - François de Laval founds the Séminaire de Québec, now known as the Université Laval.

1663 - Arrival of Augustin de Saffray de Mézy , first governor named by the King, Monseigneur Laval, royal commissioner Louis Gaudais-Dupont and 150 colonists and craftmen on September 15.

1663 - Election of Jean-Baptiste Legardeur de Repentigny , the first mayor of Quebec City on October 17.

1665 - Jean-Baptiste Colbert appoints Jean Talon as intendant of New France.

1665 - The new governor de Mézy dies of sickness in Quebec City.

1665 - Daniel de Rémy de Courcelle becomes governor of New France.

1665 - Arrival of the Carignan-Salières Regiment of 1,300 soldiers on June 19.

1665 - The Carignan-Salières Regiment destroys five Mohawk nation villages, weakening Iroquois resolve to keep fighting.

1666 - A census conducted by Jean Talon in the winter of 1665-1666 showed a population of 3,215 French inhabitants residing in New France.

1666 - During the autumn, the soldier of Carignan-Salières, led by Alexandre de Prouville , the “Marquis de Tracy” and the governor, invade the Iroquois territory to the south, burn their villages and destroy their crops. See French and Iroquois Wars.

1667 - Signing of a peace treaty with the defeated Iroquois

1667 - The first Filles du roi (“King’s Daughters”) arrive in New France during the summer.

Charles Diel dit Le Petit Breton (1652–1702) (8th great-grandfather)
son of Philippe Diel (1618–1676) and Marie Anquetin (Hanquetin) (1630–_)
• 1665, arrived in New France as a soldier in the La Fouille Company of the Carignan-Salières Regiment.
• 1677, voyageur with Frontenac at Fort Frontenac
• 1684, Leger Hebert of Cap de la Trinite has a trade permit and hires Charles to go to the Outaouais (Ottawas) country with Pierre Lefebvre and Antoine Caille on 20 September 1684 for the sum of 630 livres.
Birth BEFORE 1652 • Rouen, Seine-Maritime, Haute-Normandie, France
Death 13 APR 1702 • Laprairie, Quebec, Canada
Marriage 1676 to Marie Anne Picard (1663–1697)
http://a-drifting-cowboy.blogspot.com/2016/07/laprairies-diel-family-three.html

Jeanne Testard (1642–1723) (8th great grandmother) √
daughter of Jean Testard dit Lafontaine (1612–1705) and Anne Godefroy (1615–1678)
• Jeanne was a Fille à Marier, arriving in New France by 1662.
Birth 1642 • Rouen, Seine-Maritime, Haute-Normandie, France
Death 18 JAN 1723 • Laprairie, Quebec, Canada
Marriage 1662 to Francois Leber (Lebert) (1626–1694)
http://a-drifting-cowboy.blogspot.com/2013/08/cowboy-legacy-great-granddad-was-fur.html

Charles Boyer (1631–1698) (9th great-grandfather)
son of Pierre Boyer (1610–1660) and Denise Refence (1610–1666)
• 1660s, ten members of the Boyer family, including his son Antoine Boyer (husband of Marie Perras) are listed on 31 voyageur trips. These lists do not include the trips these same men made on their own as coureurs des bois.
Birth 1631 • Vançais, Deux-Sevres, Poitou-Charentes, France
Death 16 FEB 1698 • Laprairie, Quebec, Canada
Married 1666 to Marguerite Ténard (1645–1678)
http://a-drifting-cowboy.blogspot.com/2013/08/cowboy-legacy-great-granddad-was-fur.html

Andre Robidou dit Lespagnol (1643–1678) (9th great-grandfather)
son of Manuel Robidou (1620–1667) and Catherine Alve (1618–1667)
• 1666, working as a voyageur for Eustace Lambert, a prominent fur trader.
Birth 1643 • Galice, Burgos, Castilla-Leon, Spain
Death 1 APR 1678 • Laprairie, Quebec, Canada
Married 1667 to Jeanne Denote (1647–1701)
http://a-drifting-cowboy.blogspot.com/2016/06/it-must-be-in-my-genes_29.html

Jeanne Denote (1647–1701) (9th great-grandmother)
daughter of unknown
• Jeanne came to Quebec in 1666 and resided at a house on the grounds of the Ursuline monastery until she married Andre Robidou dit Lespagnol on June 17, 1667. In 1771, Andre and Jeanne moved to the village of LaPrairie with their first daughter, Marie Romaine, most likely because of involvement in the fur trade.
Birth 1647 • St Germain lAuxerrios, Paris, Ile-de-France, France
Death 10 OCT 1701 • Laprairie, Quebec, Canada
Marriage (1) 1667 to Andre Robidou dit Lespagnol (1643–1678), (2) Jauques Suprenant dit Sansoucy (1650–1710)
http://a-drifting-cowboy.blogspot.com/2016/06/it-must-be-in-my-genes_29.html

Pierre Duquet de La Chesnaye (1643 - 1687) (8th great-uncle)
son of Denis Duquet (1605–1675) and Catherine Gautier (1625–1702)
• Explorer, first Canadian-born royal notary, attorney-general, and seigneurial judge.
• 1663, Accompanied Guillaume Couture on expedition to the Northern Sea - reached the Rupert River.
Birth BEFORE 14 JAN 1643 • Quebec, Canada
Death 13 OCT. 1687 • Quebec, Canada
Marriage 1666 to Anne Lamarre (1649–1698)
http://a-drifting-cowboy.blogspot.com/2016/07/great-uncle-pierre-duquet-explorer-and.html

François Pinsonneau dit Lafleur (1646-1731) (7th great-grandfather)
parents unknown
• a soldier in the Saint-Ours Company of the Carignan-Salières Regiment, arrived on the ship La Justice 14 September 1665.
Birth 1646 • Saintogne, Charente-Maritime, Poitou-Charentes, France
Death 26 JAN 1731 • La Prairie (Notre-Dame-de-LaPrairie-de-la-Madeleine), Québec
Marriage 1673 to Anne LeBer (Leper) (1647–1732) (a King's Daughter - filles du roi)
http://a-drifting-cowboy.blogspot.com/2015/08/great-grandma-was-french-kings-daughter.html
http://a-drifting-cowboy.blogspot.com/2016/07/two-carignan-salieres-soldiers-and-pair.html

Jean Baptiste Desroches (1621-1684) (8th great-grandfather)
son of Jean Antoine Desroches (1585–1652) and Antoinette Unknown (1585-_)
• 1667, formed a trading company with Nicolas Perrot, Toussaint Baudry, and Isaac Nafrechoux. Together they traveled west to Ottawa Country, and to Green Bay in 1668.
Birth 1621 • Le Bois, Haute-Loire, Auvergne, France
Death 23 AUG 1684 • Pointe Aux Tembles, Montreal, Canada
Marriage 1647 to Francoise Godé (Gaudet) (1631–1715)
http://a-drifting-cowboy.blogspot.com/2016/08/a-canoe-load-of-french-canadian.html

André Mignier (Migner) (Meignier) dit Lagacé (1641-1727) (8th great-grandfather)
son of Michel Mignier Lagace (1602–1678) and Catherine Masson (1620–1669)
• a French Sharpshooter in the Berthier Company of the Carignan-Salières Regiment, arrived on the ship Le Brézé 30 June 1665.
Birth 11 APR 1641 • St Martin, Puy-de-Dome, Auvergne, France
Death 20 NOVEMBER 1727 • Sainte-Anne-de-la-Pocatière, Quebec, Canada
Marriage 1668 to Jacquette Michel (1630–1710) (a King's Daughter - filles du roi)
http://a-drifting-cowboy.blogspot.com/2013/09/great-granddad-was-french-sharpshooter.html
http://a-drifting-cowboy.blogspot.com/2016/07/two-carignan-salieres-soldiers-and-pair.html

Marguerite Leboeuf (1636-1671) (9th great-grandmother)
daughter of Guillaume Leboeuf (_–1727) and Marguerite Milot de Troye (1612–1694)
• 1665, ran a cabaret in Quebec, and was accused of adultery and of keeping a "maison close."
Birth 15 MAR 1636 • Troyes, Aube, Champagne, France
Death 23 NOV 1671 • Québec, Quebec, Canada
Marriage 1658 to Gabriel Lemieux (1626–1700)
http://a-drifting-cowboy.blogspot.com/2016/07/great-grandma-ran-best-little-maison.html

Gabriel Lemieux (1626-1700) (9th great-grandfather)
son of Louis Lemieux (1600–1665) and Marie Luguan (1600–1669)
• 1690, Voyageur and courier de bois to Michilimackinac and Sault Ste. Marie.
Birth 10 APR 1626 • Rouen, Seine-Maritime, Haute-Normandie, France
Death 2 DEC 1700 • Québec, Quebec, Canada
Marriage 1658 to Marguerite Leboeuf (1636-1671)
http://a-drifting-cowboy.blogspot.com/2016/07/great-grandma-ran-best-little-maison.html

Jacques Leber (Lebert) dit Larose (1633-1706) (9th great-uncle)
son of Robert LeBer (1601–1625) and Colette Cavelier (1605–1694)
• 1669-1687, partner in Lachine's first Fur Trading Post.
Birth 1633 • Normandie, Eure, Haute-Normandie, France
Death 25 NOV 1706 • Montréal, Quebec, Canada
Marriage 1658 to Jeanne Le Moyne (1635–1682) (sister of Charles Le Moyne Sieur de Longueuil (1626-1685).
http://a-drifting-cowboy.blogspot.com/2016/07/uncle-jacques-le-ber-trading-post.html

Charles Le Moyne Sieur de Longueuil (1626 - 1685) (brother-in-law of 9th great-uncle)
son of Pierre Le Moyne (1595–1658) and Judith Duchesne (1600–1658)
• 1669-1687, partner in Lachine's first Fur Trading Post.
Birth 2 AUG 1626 • Dieppe, Haute-Normandie, France
Death 1685 • Montréal, Quebec, Canada
Marriage 1654 to Catherine Thierry dit Primot (1641–1690)
http://a-drifting-cowboy.blogspot.com/2016/07/uncle-jacques-le-ber-trading-post.html

1670s

1670s - The Hudson Bay Company was chartered. They claimed all the lands that drained into Hudson Bay as their trading area. Their post were located on Hudson Bay and the Indians brought their furs there. About this time the Dakota Sioux attacked and drove the Huron and Ottawa out of the western Great Lakes. After this time many Frenchmen moved into the region and began trading directly with the Indians.

1670 - Jean-Baptiste Legardeur de Repentigny establishes Repentigny, Quebec.

1672 - Louis Buade de Frontenac becomes Governor of New France on April 7.

1673 - Marquette and Joliet used the Fox and Wisconsin rivers to reach the Mississippi. After this the Fox and Wisconsin Rivers became a major transportation route to the western trading regions.

1674 - Creation of the Roman Catholic diocese of Quebec. François de Laval is made Bishop.

1675 - The expression coureur des bois is coined to name those who bypass Royal officials and deal directly with the First Nations in the fur trade.

1675 - Arrival of the new intendant Jacques Duchesneau de la Doussinière et d'Ambault.

1679 - Daniel Greysolon, Sieur Du Luth used the Savannah Portage to reach the interior of Minnesota and Mille Lac. He claimed all the lands for France. He returned to Lake Superior and traveled up the northwest shore and built a post on the Kaministikquai River.

The Ojibwe were moving from eastern Lake Superior to the area around Chequamagon. They took the place of the departed Huron and Ottawa. They even allied themselves with the Dakota with whom they traded goods.

Pierre Peras dit La Fontaine (9th great-grandfather) and his wife Denise Lemaitre (9th great-grandmother)
Pierre Peras (Perras) dit La Fontaine (1616–1684)
son of Pierre Perras (1590–1660) and Jeanne Lanier (1595–1660)
• 1670s, Pierre, his three sons and sons-in-laws involved in the fur trade as Coureurs des bois
Birth 21 AUGUST 1616 • Rouen, Departement de la Seine-Maritime, Haute-Normandie, France
Death 30 APR 1684 • La Prairie (Notre-Dame-de-LaPrairie-de-la-Madeleine), Québec
Marriage 1660 to Denise Lemaitre (1635–1691)
http://a-drifting-cowboy.blogspot.com/2016/06/it-must-be-in-my-genes_29.html
http://a-drifting-cowboy.blogspot.com/2016/05/great-grandma-was-orphan-killed-by.html

Pierre Poupart (8th great-grandfather) and his wife Marguerite Perras (8th great-grandmother)
Pierre Poupart (1653–1699) (8th great-grandfather)
son of Jean Poupart (1625–1682) and Marguerite Frichet (1625–1682)
• 1670, Voyageur for Daumont de Saint-Lusson and Nicolas Perrot when they claimed the Great Lakes for France
Birth ABT 1653 • Bobigny, Paris, Ile-de-France, France
Death 7 JUN 1699 • Laprairie, Quebec, Canada
Marriage 1682 to Marguerite Perras dit La Fontaine (1665–1708)

1680s

1682 - Arrival of governor Joseph-Antoine Le Febvre de La Barre and intendant Jacques de Meulles

1682 - René Robert Cavalier de La Salle takes possession of the basin of the Mississippi river for the king of France.

1684 - Pierre-Esprit Radisson , a coureur de bois , is employed by Britain to explore the north for furs.

1685 - Jacques-René de Brisay, marquis de Denonville becomes governor of New France.

1685 - Louis XIV of France decrees the Code noir (Black Code) that ordered all Jews out of the French colonial empire , defined the rules for slavery ,
restricted the activities of free Negroes , and forbade the exercise of any religion other than Roman Catholicism.

1689 - Frontenac is reappointed governor of New France.

1689 - August 5. Fifteen hundred Iroquois warriors attack the settlement of Lachine, killing or torturing most if its inhabitants. This incident would become known as the Lachine massacre.

1689 - War broke out between France and England. It interrupted trade as far west as Minnesota.

Denise Lemaitre (1635–1691) (9th great-grandmother)
daughter of Denis Le Maitre (1617–1660) and Catherine Desharnie (1613–1660)
• AFT 1684, conducted fur trade with the Catholic Iroquois to make ends meet.
• 1691, in the village of Côte St-Lambert, she was killed and massacred by the Iroquois.
Birth 1635 • Paris, Paris, Ile-de-France, France
Death 29 OCT 1691 • La Prairie, Quebec, Canada
Married 1660 to Pierre Peras (Perras) dit La Fontaine (1616–1684)
http://a-drifting-cowboy.blogspot.com/2016/05/great-grandma-was-orphan-killed-by.html

Francois Leber (Lebert) (1626–1694) (8th great-grandfather)
son of Robert LeBer (1601–1625) and Colette Cavelier (1605–1694)
• 1688, voyageur to Ottawa Country. Francois and his three sons were Coureurs des bois and became known as the fathers of the fur trade.
Birth 1626 • Rouen, Seine-Maritime, Haute-Normandie, France
Death 19 MAY 1694 • Laprairie, Quebec, Canada
Marriage (1) to BEF 1656 to Marguerite Leseur (1628-1662) (2) 1662 to Jeanne Testard (1642–1723) (8th great-grandmother)
http://a-drifting-cowboy.blogspot.com/2013/08/cowboy-legacy-great-granddad-was-fur.html

Charles Marin Deneau dit Destaillis (1663–1708) (8th great-uncle)
son of Marin Deneau dit Destaillis (1621–1678) and Louise Therese LeBreuil (1634–1727)
• 1685, Antoine Bazinet hired Charles for a voyage to Sault Ste. Marie.
Birth 1663 • Montréal, , Quebec, Canada
Death 1708 • Montréal, , Quebec, Canada
Marriage 1685 to Madeleine Clément (1668–1760)
http://a-drifting-cowboy.blogspot.com/2016/06/it-must-be-in-my-genes_29.html

Francois Bourassa (1659–1708) (7th great-grandfather)
son of Francois Bourassa (1630–1684) and Marguerite Dugas (1635–1698)
• 1686, François Bourassa made a voyage to Hudson Bay for the Compagnie du Nord.
• 1688, René Legardeur, sieur de Beauvais, hired François Bourassa and Joachim Jacques Leber to make a voyage des 8ta8ats (Ottawa Indians).
• 1690 René Legardeur hired Pierre Bourdeau, André Babeu, François Bourassa, and Joachim Leber for a voyage to Michilimackinac.
• 1690, Pierre Bourdeau consented to a debt for merchandise from André Babeau, Joachim Leber, and François Bourassa, voyageurs, for their voyage to the Ottawa.
Birth 1659 • Luçon, Eure-et-Loir, Centre, France
Death 9 MAY 1708 • La Prairie (Notre-Dame-de-LaPrairie-de-la-Madeleine), Montréal, PQ, Canada
Marriage 1668 to Marie Le Ber (1666–1756)
http://a-drifting-cowboy.blogspot.com/2013/08/cowboy-legacy-great-granddad-was-fur.html

Marie Le Ber (1666–1756) (7th great-grandmother)
daughter of Francois Leber (Lebert) (1626–1694) and Jeanne Testard (1642–1723)
• her father Francois Leber was known as the "father of the fur trade."
Birth 6 DEC 1666 • Montréal, Quebec, Canada
Death 23 DEC 1756 • La Prairie, Quebec, Canada
Marriage 1668 to Francois Bourassa (1659–1708)
http://a-drifting-cowboy.blogspot.com/2013/08/cowboy-legacy-great-granddad-was-fur.html

Louis Duquet sieur Duverdier (1657-1691) (8th great-uncle)
son of Denis Duquet (1605–1675) and Catherine Gautier (1625–1702)
• 1689, voyageur engagement de Louis Duquet Sr Duverdier et Louis Provencher au Sr Nicolas Perrot, Michililmackinac.
Birth 19 FEB 1657 • Quebec, Canada
Death 1691 • Quebec City, Quebec, New France
http://a-drifting-cowboy.blogspot.com/2016/08/a-canoe-load-of-french-canadian.html

Jean Duquet dit Desrochers (1651-1710) (7th great-grandfather)
son of Denis Duquet (1605–1675) and Catherine Gautier (1625–1702)
• 1680s "bourgeois" - headman of a fur brigade.
Birth 1651 • Québec, Quebec, Canada
Death 20 AUG 1710 • Lauzon, Quebec, Canada
Marriage 1683 to Catherine-Ursule Amiot (1664–1715)

Anne Leber (1656-1694) (8th great-aunt)
daughter of François LeBer (1626-1694) and Marguerite Leseur (1628-1662)
• wife of Fur Trader in Albany, New York
Birth 1 JAN 1656 • France
Death 19 MAY 1694 • La Prairie, Quebec, Canada
Marriage (1) 1672 to Antoine Barrois [Lotman?] (1640/7–BEF1689) (2) 1689 to Jean Baptiste Lotman (Lootman) dit Albrin (1650-1689) NEEDS MORE RESEARCH
http://a-drifting-cowboy.blogspot.com/2016/05/my-leber-family-la-prairie-quebec-canada.html

Antoine Barrois [Lotman?](1640/7–1689)
parents unknown
• Fur Trader in Albany, New York
Birth abt. 1640 in France
Death bef. 1689 in Albany, New York
Marriage 1672 to Anne Leber (1656-1694)
http://a-drifting-cowboy.blogspot.com/2016/05/my-leber-family-la-prairie-quebec-canada.html

Joachim Jacques Leber (1664 - 1695) (8th great-uncle)
son of François LeBer (1626-1694) and Jeanne Testard (1642–1723)
• 1686, François Bourassa made a voyage to Hudson Bay for the Compagnie du Nord.
• 1688, René Legardeur, sieur de Beauvais, hired François Bourassa and Joachim Jacques Leber to make a voyage des 8ta8ats (Ottawa Indians).
• 1690 René Legardeur hired Pierre Bourdeau, André Babeu, François Bourassa, and Joachim Leber for a voyage to Michilimackinac.
• 1690, Pierre Bourdeau consented to a debt for merchandise from André Babeau, Joachim Leber, and François Bourassa, voyageurs, for their voyage to the Ottawa.
• 1692 captured and interrogated by Governor Benjamin Fletcher of New York, at Albany.
Birth 6 OCT 1664 • Montréal, Quebec, Canada
Death 21 JUL 1695 • Laprairie, Quebec, Canada
Marriage 1692 to Marie Jeanne Cusson (1663–1738)
http://a-drifting-cowboy.blogspot.com/2016/05/my-leber-family-la-prairie-quebec-canada.html

Daniel Joseph Amiot (Amyot) Dit Villeneuve (1665–1725) (8th great-uncle)
son of Mathieu Amiot (Amyot) Sieur de Villeneuve (1628–1688) and Marie Catherine Miville (1632–1702)
• 1686, took part in Henri de Tonti’s search for La Salle and descended the Mississippi River
• 1690, François Garconnes de Boisrondel/t, acting for François Daupin sieur de LaForest, hired Daniel Joseph Amiot, Joseph Bénard, Joseph Fafard, Louis Fafard frères, and Jean Lat for a voyage to the Illinois [Antoine  Adhémar.
• MANY MORE THRU 1710.
Birth 4 OCT 1665 • Québec, Quebec, Canada
Death 1725 • Michillimackinac, Michigan, United States
Marriage 1719 • Mackinac Island, Mackinac, Michigan, United States to Domithilde Oukabe Nepveuouikabe LaFourche (1690–1782)
http://a-drifting-cowboy.blogspot.com/2016/07/great-uncle-daniel-amiot-canoes-to-gulf_3.html

Laurent Barette (1666–1725) (8th great-uncle)
son Guillaume Barette (1633–1717) and Louise Charrier (1643–1706)
• 1686, voyageur to louisiana and the gulf of mexico with Henri De Tonty
• 1687, engagements of Dumay and Laurent Barette to La Forest, to go to Fort St. Louis in the country of the Illinois
Birth 1666 • Trois Rivieres, St Maurice, Quebec, Canada
Death 1725 • Cap De La Madeleine, Champlain, Quebec, Canada
Marriage 1689 to Marie Madeline Rochereau dit Rocheleau (1667–1736)
http://a-drifting-cowboy.blogspot.com/2016/07/great-uncle-laurent-voyageur-to-country.html

Jacques Barette (1668-1691) (8th great-uncle)
son of Guillaume Barette (1633–1717) and Louise Charrier (1643–1706)
• 1680s, reported to have been a voyageur and fur trader in Illinois.
Birth 1668 • Trois-Rivières, Quebec, Canada
Death 1691 • Champlain, Québec, Canada
never married
http://a-drifting-cowboy.blogspot.com/2016/07/great-uncle-laurent-voyageur-to-country.html

Charles Marin Deneau dit Destaillis (1663-1708) (8th great-uncle)
son of Marin Deneau dit Destaillis (1621–1678) and Louise Therese LeBreuil (1634–1727)
• 1685, Antoine Bazinet hired Charles Deniau dit Destaillis (8 great uncle) for a voyage to Sault Ste. Marie [Bourgine]
Birth 1663 • Montréal, , Quebec, Canada
Death 1708 • Montréal, , Quebec, Canada
Marriage 1685 to Madeleine Clément (1668–1760)
http://a-drifting-cowboy.blogspot.com/2016/06/it-must-be-in-my-genes_29.html

Jacques Deneau (Deniau) dit Destaillis (1660–1720) (7th great-grandfather)
son of Marin Deneau dit Destaillis (1621–1678) and Louise Therese LeBreuil (1634–1727)
• 1685, Antoine Bazinet hired Charles Deniau dit Destaillis (8 great uncle) for a voyage to Sault Ste. Marie [Bourgine]
• 1688, 5 July - Claude Greysolon, Sieur de LaTourette, hired Charles Deniau (8 great uncle) and Jacques Deniau (7 great grandfather) for a trip to the 8ta8ois (Ottawa Indians) Notary Antoine Adhémar.)
• from: "Minnesota, eh?" - Jacques Deneau, his brother Charles and a total of 19 Deneau family members are listed on 69 voyageur trips.
Birth 2 NOV 1660 • Montréal, Quebec, Canada
Death 29 JUN 1720 • Laprairie, Quebec, Canada
Marriage 1690 to Marie Rivet (1673–1705)
http://a-drifting-cowboy.blogspot.com/2016/06/it-must-be-in-my-genes_29.html

Jacques Nepveu (Neveu) (1667-1722) (1st cousin 9x removed)
son of Denise Sevestre (1632–1700) and Philipe Neveu (Nepveu) (1634–1720)
• 1684, Sep 27 - in Québec, between Henri de Tonty, governor of Fort St. Louis de la Louisianne under the authority of De La Salle, and two voyageurs, Jacques Nepveu (Neveu), and Anthoine Duquet Madri. According to the terms of the agreement, Neveu and Madri will travel by canoe to the fort, where they will trade merchandise for beaver skins. Tonty, as outfitter, will provide all merchandise, canoes, provisions, ammunition, and any other necessary items. The two voyageurs can trade at the fort for as long as they desire, and will then transport all beaver skins back to Québec. After the expenses of the trip are deducted, the remaining profits will be divided into halves, with Tonty receiving one half, and the remaining half to be shared between the two voyageurs. In addition, the voyageurs will receive payment in pelts equal to the sum of 150 livres, as well as the right to carry a rifle, two "capots," three shirts, and a blanket to trade for their own profit. They also receive a bonus of 10 beavers. The contract, which had originally included two other voyageurs, brothers Guillaume and Gilles Boissel, whose names are crossed out, is signed by Tonty, Madri, Neveu, and notary Pierre Duquet, in the presence of two witnesses Jacques Turet and Hippolyte Theberge.)
Birth ABT. 1667 • Montréal, Quebec, Canada
Death 1722 • kaskaskia, Illinois, USA
Marriage 1695 to Michelle Chauvin (1670–1722)
http://a-drifting-cowboy.blogspot.com/2016/07/great-aunt-denise-was-mother-of.html

Nicolas Desroches (1652-1737) 8th great-uncle
son of Jean Baptiste Desroches (1621-1684) and Francoise Godé (Gaudet) (1631–1715)
• 1682, François Hazeur, marchand, de Québec, engages Denis Turpin, Ignace, Hébert et Nicolas Desroches, for exploration and trade with 8ta8ats (Ottawa Indians).
Birth 7 OCT 1652 • Montréal, Quebec, Canada
Death 27 APR 1737 • Pte aux Trembles, Quebec, Canada
Marriage 1688 to Jeanne Perthuis (1673-1735)

Joseph Boyer (1669-_) (9th great-uncle)
son of Charles Boyer 1631–1698 and Marguerite Ténard 1645–1678
• 1688, 3 July ‒ René Legardeur, sieur de Beauvais, hired Joseph Boyer (9 great uncle) for a voyage to the 8ta8ois (Ottawa Indians). Notary Antoine Adhémar.
Birth 7 JAN 1669 • Montréal, , Quebec, Canada
Death Unknown
no known marriage

1690s

1690 - Sir William Phips appears with several ships near L'Isle d'Orleans and demands the surrender of the Fort of Quebec. Frontenac refuses and Phips
withdraws.

1690 - July 2 : One-hundred Iroquois are attacked in the Battle of Coulée Grou resulting in Canadian pioneer Jean Grou and others being burned alive.

1690 - New France falls after losing 600 men in war.

1692 - Marie-Madeleine Jarret de Verchères becomes a hero in New France for defending a fort against the Iroquois while waiting for French Army reinforcements.

1696 - During King William’s War French troops seized the Avalon Peninsula in Newfoundland and burned the city of St. John’s.

1696 - By Royal Edict, New France closed all its western fur posts. Trade was officially abandoned for 20 years. However, illegal traders kept up their operations.

1696 - René Lepage de Ste-Claire founded what will become the city of Rimouski later. He installed all his family in the Lower St. Lawrence. He obtained this Seigneurie from Augustin Rouer de la Cardonnière in exchange of a ground which he had on the Île d'Orléans.

1698 - Louis-Hector de Callière is made governor of New France after the death of Frontenac in November.

1699 - Pierre Le Moyne d'Iberville establishes France 's first permanent settlement in Louisiana in what is now the southernmost portion of Alabama.

Antoine Jacques Boyer (1671-1747) (8th great-grandfather)
son of Charles Boyer (1631–1698) and Marguerite Ténard (1645–1678)
• 1690, Coureur de bois who bought land with 600 livres from the sale of beaver pelts. 
• 1694, Charles Legardeur, sieur de L’Isle, hired Antoine to make a voyage to the 8ta8ois (Ottawa Indians)
Birth 10 APR 1671 • Laprairie, Quebec, Canada
Death 27 MAR 1747 • Laprairie, Quebec, Canada
Marriage 1690 to Marie Perras (1673–1736)

Jean Cusson (1630–1718) (9th great-grandfather)
son of Jean Cusson (1605–1656) and Jacqueline Pepin (1606–1663)
• 1690, Voyageur for Nicolas Perrot to the 8ta8ois (Ottawa Indians)  Jean Cusson had six sons, Jean, Michel, Charles, Ange, Nicolas and Joseph who were all active as fur-traders from 1690 to 1713. All having all received permission to travel to the west.
Birth 1630-11-11 • Ste-Marguerite, Rouen, Normandie, France
Death 1718-04-08 • St-Sulpice, Québec, Canada
Marriage 1656 to Marie Foubert (1640–1715)

Michel Cusson (1667-1690) (9th great-uncle)
son of Jean Cusson (1630-1718) and Marie Foubert (1640-1715)
• 1690, Nicolas Perrot hired Jean Cusson, and Michel Cusson, frères, for a voyage to the 8ta8ois (Ottawa Indians), notary Antoine Adhémar.
Birth ABT 1667 • Champlain, Quebec, Canada
Death 1690 • Québec, Quebec, Canada
no known marriage

Antoine Duquet dit Madry (1660-1733) (8th great-uncle)
son of Denis Duquet (1605–1675) and Catherine Gautier (1625–1702)
• 1691, voyageur engagement de Antoine Duquet dit Madry à François de Laforest, Michililmackinac.
Birth 1660 • Quebec, Canada
Death 1733
unmarried

Moïse Dupuis (Depuis) (1673 - 1750) (7th great-grandfather)
son of Francois Dupuis (Dupays) (1634-1681) and Georgette Richer(1647-1799)
• 1692, courier de bois and trader at Schenectady, NY)
• from "Narratives and ldentities in the Saint Lawrence Valley, 1667-1720": He was linked to large fur trading families, however, he may have been among the French who attacked Schenectady in 1692." He seems to have remained in Schenectady, either as a trader, a wounded soldier or as a prisoner, long enough to find a spouse.
Birth 10 JULY 1673 • Québec, Quebec, Canada
Death 19 JAN 1750 • La Prairie, Quebec, Canada
Marriage 1699 to Marie Anne Christiansen (1676–1750)

Jacques Hugues Picard (1618-1707) (9th great-grandfather)
son of Gabriel Picard dit LaFortune (1590-1660) and Michelle Clavier (1598-1660)
• 1693 – Eustache Prévost, Jean Sauviot, and their unnamed associates hired Jacques Picard (9 great grandfather) to make a voyage to the 8ta8ois (Ottawa Indians), notary Antoine Adhémar.
Birth ABT 1618 • St Columbin, Nantes, Bretagne, France
Death 22 DEC 1707 • Our Lady of Montreal, Quebec, Canada
Marriage 1660 to Antoinette Liercourt (1634–1707)

Gabriel Lemieux (1663–1739) (8th great-grandfather)
son of Gabriel Lemieux (1626–1700) and Marguerite Leboeuf (1636–1671)
• 1690, Voyageur and courier de bois to Michilimackinac and Sault Ste. Marie.
• 1692, Aug 9 - engagement by Joachim Germano, Notary Antoine Adhemar dit Saint-Martin.
• more from: Michigan’s Habitant Heritage (MHH), Vol. 35, #2, April 2014 - 17th Century Engagé Contracts to the Great Lakes and Beyond – 15 June 1690 to 23 May 1695 – Part 2:
Above: "19 August 1692, Joachim Germaneau hired Gabriel Lemieux and Laurent Glory dit LaBrière to make a voyage to the 8ta8ois (Ottawa Indians) specifically to Michilimackinac and Sault Ste. Marie [Antoine Adhémar"
• 1734, May 28 - Ustache Gamelin embauché Gabriel Lemieux  voyageur aller à poste des associes [Kamanistigouia???], notary Lepailleur de LaFerté)
Birth 4 SEP 1663 • La Prairie, La Prairie, Quebec, Canada
Death 18 SEP 1739 • La Prairie, Quebec, Canada
Marriage 1690 to Jeanne Robidoux (1673–1736)

Jean Perras dit Lafontaine (1668–1736) (9th great-uncle)
son of Pierre Peras dit La Fontaine (1616-1684) and Denise Lemaitre (1635–1691)
• 1692 – Jacques de Lamarque, acting for Nicolas Laurens dit Lachapelle hired Jean Perras to make a voyage to the 8ta8ois (Ottawa Indians), notary Antoine Adhémar.
• 1694 – Charles Legardeur, sieur de L’Isle, hired Pierre Mallet, Pierre Tessier, Jean Brunet dit Létang, and Pierre Perras dit Lafontaine to make a voyage to Michilimackinac, notary Antoine Adhémar.
Birth ABT 1668 • Montreal, Quebec, Canada
Death 1736 • La Prairie, , Quebec, Canada
Marriage (1) 1698 to Marguerite Testu (2) 1701 to Madeleine Roy (1684–1726)

Antoine Martin dit Montpellier (1654-1715) (1st cousin 9x removed)
son of Denise Sevestre (1632–1700) and Antoine Martin (1620–1659)
• 1694, May 21 - Louis Rouer de Villeray, acting for the ancient company of Jean Oudiette and Pierre Benac, in the name of Charles Catignon, reached an agreement with Antoine Martin dit Montpellier, of St Bernard, Charles Cadieux, of Beauport; Charles Neveu/Nepveu and François Dumesny, of Québec; to go to Michilimackinac to hunt for the furs that Nicolas Perrot had sent sieur Amiot (probably Daniel Joseph) to bring to the Jesuit warehouse in the name of Jacques Charles Patu/Pattu, manager of the ancient company of Oudiette [Chambalon and Roy, Vol. 18, p. 72])
Birth 28 AUG 1654 • Québec, Quebec, Canada
Death 6 APR 1715 • St Bernard, Quebec, Pq, Canada
Marriage 1690 to Jeanne Cadieu (1663–1696)
http://a-drifting-cowboy.blogspot.com/2016/07/great-aunt-denise-was-mother-of.html

Charles Neveu/Nepveu (1671-1705) (1st cousin 9x removed)
son of Denise Sevestre (1632–1700) and Philipe Neveu (Nepveu) (1634–1720)
• 1694 May 21 -  Louis Rouer de Villeray, acting for the ancient company of Jean Oudiette and Pierre Benac, in the name of Charles Catignon, reached an agreement with Antoine Martin dit Montpellier, of StBernard, Charles Cadieux, of Beauport; Charles Neveu/Nepveu and François Dumesny, of Québec; to go to Michilimackinac to hunt for the furs that Nicolas Perrot had sent sieur Amiot (probably Daniel Joseph) to bring to the Jesuit warehouse in the name of Jacques Charles Patu/Pattu, manager of the ancient company of Oudiette [Chambalon and Roy, Vol. 18, p. 72])
Birth ABT. 1671 • Québec, Quebec, Canada
Death 1705 • France, Louisiana, USA (1 unk. source)
never married
http://a-drifting-cowboy.blogspot.com/2016/07/great-aunt-denise-was-mother-of.html

René Dupuis (Dupays) (1671-1738) (8 great uncle)
son of Francois Dupuis (Dupays) (1634-1681) and Georgette Richer (1647-1700)
• 1695, 3 June – Sieur Charles Deniau (8 great uncle) hired René Dupuis (8 great uncle) to make a voyage to the 8ta8ois (Ottawa Indians). Notary Claude Maugue.
Birth JUNE 26, 1671 • Québec City, Québec, Canada
Death DEC 31, 1738 • La Prairie, Québec, Canada
Marriage (1) 1694 to Angelique Marie (Marier) dit St. Marie (1676–1714), Marriage (2) 1718 to Madeleine Clément (1668–1760)

Joseph Moreau (1672-1708) (9th great-uncle)
son of Jean Moreau (1635–1710) and Anne Guillet (1652–1718)
• 1696, Joseph Moreau and Louis Durand engaged by Marie-Therese Guyon, the wife of Antoine de Lamothe-Cadillac to go to Michilimackinac.
• 1697, Joseph Moreau brought a lawsuit against Antoine de Lamothe-Cadillac and won.
http://a-drifting-cowboy.blogspot.com/2016/07/great-uncle-joseph-wins-lawsuit-against.html
Birth ABT. 1672 • Champlain, , Quebec, Canada
Death 1708 • Batiscan, Quebec, Canada
Marriage 1700 to Françoise Frigon (1681–1755)

Jean Gabriel Picard (1669-1735) (9th great-uncle)
son of Jacques Hugues Picard (1618-1707) and Antoinette Liercourt (1634–1707)
• 1691, Claude Greysolon, sieur de LaTourette, hired Jean Gabriel Picard to make a voyage to the 8ta8ois (Ottawa Indians), notary Antoine Adhémar.
Birth 17 JUN 1669 • Montreal, Quebec, Canada
Death 24 JAN 1735 • Longue Pointe, Quebec, Canada
Marriage 1696 to Marie Madeleine Rapin (1678-1758)

Joseph Farfard (Fafart) (1645 - 1666) (1st cousin 9x removed)
son of Bertrand Farfard (Fafart) dit Laframboise (1620–1660) and Marie Sédilot (1627–1689)
• 1690, 5 May, 7 May, and 8 May (four contracts), François Garconnes de Boisrondel/t, acting for François Daupin, sieur de LaForest, hired Daniel Joseph Amiot, Joseph Bénard, Joseph Fafard, Louis Fafard, frères, and Jean Lat for a voyage to the Illinois, notary Antoine Adhémar.
Birth 9 AUG 1645 • Trois-Rivières, Quebec, Canada
Death 1666 • Trois-Rivières, Quebec, Canada
no known marriage
http://a-drifting-cowboy.blogspot.com/2016/08/a-canoe-load-of-french-canadian.html

Joseph Bénard dit Carignan (1662-1735) (1st cousin 9x removed)
son of René Besnard (Benard) dit Bourjoli et Carignan (1625–1689) and Marie Sédilot (1627–1689)
• 1690, 5 May, 7 May, and 8 May (four contracts), François Garconnes de Boisrondel/t, acting for François Daupin, sieur de LaForest, hired Daniel Joseph Amiot, Joseph Bénard, Joseph Fafard, Louis Fafard, frères, and Jean Lat for a voyage to the Illinois, notary Antoine Adhémar.
Birth 27 DEC 1662 • Trois Rivires, Quebec, Canada
Death 16 FEB 1735 • Boucherville, Québec, Canada
Marriage 1689 to Marguerite Faie (1674–1721)
http://a-drifting-cowboy.blogspot.com/2016/08/a-canoe-load-of-french-canadian.html

Francois Leber (1673-1746) (8th great-uncle)
son of Francois Leber (Lebert) (1626–1694) and Jeanne Testard (1642–1723)
• 1693, Voyageur to the 8ta8ois (Ottawa Indians.
Birth 10 OCT 1673 • La Prairie, Quebec, Canada
Death 13 AUGUST 1746 • Montreal, Ile De Montreal, Quebec
Marriage 1698 to Marie Ann Magnan (Magnain) dit l'Espérance (1677–1760)
http://a-drifting-cowboy.blogspot.com/2016/08/a-canoe-load-of-french-canadian.html

Maurice Bénard dit Bourjoli (1666-1751) (1st cousin 9x removed)
son of René Besnard (Benard) dit Bourjoli et Carignan (1625–1689) and Marie Sédilot (1627–1689)
• 1694, Amador Godefroy, sieur de St. Paul, and Antoine Lepellé hired Maurice Bénard dit Bourjoly for a voyage to the 8ta8ois (Ottawa Indians), notary Antoine Adhémar.
Birth 16 APR 1666 • Trois Rivires, Quebec, Canada
Death 09 APR 1751 • Boucherville,,Montérégie, Quebec, Canada
Marriage 1696 ro Marie Françoise Normandin (1678–1701)
http://a-drifting-cowboy.blogspot.com/2016/08/a-canoe-load-of-french-canadian.html

1700s

1701 - August 4 : Signing of the Great Peace of Montreal between 39 First Nation tribes and the French Colonial government.

1702 - Beginning of Queen Anne’s War between France and Great Britain.

1703 - Philippe de Rigaud Vaudreuil , governor of Montreal, is made governor of New France when de Callière dies in Montreal.

1704 - Claude de Ramezay is made governor of Montreal on May 15.

1704 - February 29 - Deerfield Massacre : French forces from Quebec and Native American forces under the command of Jean-Baptiste Hertel de Rouville attacked the village of Deerfield, Massachusetts.

Charles Cusson (1672 - 1727) (9th great-uncle)
son of Jean Cusson (1630–1718) and Marie Foubert (1640–1715)
• 1701, voyageur with Antoine de La Mothe Cadillac when he established a settlement at Detroit.
http://a-drifting-cowboy.blogspot.com/2016/06/uncle-charles-was-voyageur-for-cadillac.html
• 1690-1713, five of Charles' brothers - Jean, Michel, Ange, Nicolas and Joseph were all active as fur-traders, all having received permission to travel to the west.
Birth ABOUT 1672 • Champlain, Quebec, Canada
Death 13 OCT 1727 • Verchères, Quebec, Canada
Marriage 1708 to Marguerite Renaud (1684–1748)

Pierre Rivet (1683 - 1753) (8th great-uncle)
son of Maurice Rivet (1642–1712) and Marie Cusson (1658–1732)
• 1703, hired as a voyageur to go to Detroit.
Birth 1683 • Cap de Madeleine, Quebec, Canada
Death 24 NOV 1753 • Saint-Sulpice, L'Assomption, Quebec, Canada
Marriage 1715 to Catherine Morisseau (1696–1751)

Jean Rivet (1677-_) (8th great-uncle)
son of Maurice Rivet (1642–1712) and Marie Cusson (1658–1732)
• 1705, hired as a voyageur to go to l'Ouest.
Birth 1677 • Cap-de-la-Madeleine, Quebec, Canada
Death Unknown
no known marriage
http://a-drifting-cowboy.blogspot.com/2016/08/a-canoe-load-of-french-canadian.html

Rene Rivet (1678-1735) (8th great-uncle)
son of Maurice Rivet (1642–1712) and Marie Cusson (1658–1732)
• 1705, hired as a voyageur to go to l'Ouest.
Birth 4 Aug 1678 • Cap-de-la-Madeleine, Quebec, Canada
Death 30 Jan 1735 • Laprairie, Quebec, Canada
Marriage 1710 to Madeleine Deneau (1689–1771)
http://a-drifting-cowboy.blogspot.com/2016/08/a-canoe-load-of-french-canadian.html

Guillaume Barrette dit Courville (1678 - 1745) (7th great-grandfather)
son of Guillaume Barette (1633–1717) and Louise Charrier (1643–1706)
• 1708, appointed the first notary Royal de la Seignerie de LaPrairie.
Birth 27 MAY 1678 • Cap-de-la-Madeleine, Quebec, Canada
Death 7 JAN 1745 • La Prairie (Notre-Dame-de-LaPrairie-de-la-Madeleine), Québec
Marriage 1706 to Jeanne Gagné (1683–1719)

Pierre Beauchamp (1676-_) (8th great-uncle)
son of Jacques Beauchamp dit LaGrand (1635–1692) and Marie Dardeyne (Dardenne) (1636–1699)
• 1705, Jun 5, Voyageur to Détroit and again 9 March 1709.
Birth 5 JAN 1676 • Montréal, Québec, Canada
Death Unknown
no known marriage
http://a-drifting-cowboy.blogspot.com/2016/08/a-canoe-load-of-french-canadian.html

Jacques Beauchamp (1658-_) (8th great-uncle)
son of Jacques Beauchamp dit LaGrand (1635–1692) and Marie Dardeyne (Dardenne) (1636–1699)
• 1705, May 30, Engaged to go to Détroit and again 9 March 1709.
Birth 2 FEB 1658 • Notre-Dame-de-Cogne, La Rochelle, France
Death Unknown
no known marriage
http://a-drifting-cowboy.blogspot.com/2016/08/a-canoe-load-of-french-canadian.html

Jacques Godet (1673-1729) (1st cousin 9x removed)
son of Nicolas Godé Jr. (1629–1697) and Marguerite Picard (1646–1722)
• 1707, Voyageur to Fort Pontchartrain du Detroit)
Birth 13 OCT 1673 • Montreal, Quebec, Canada
Death 19 APR 1729 • Montreal, Quebec, Canada
Marriage (1) 1698 to Marguerite Duguay (1675-BEF 1710), (2) AFT 1710 to Marie Louise St Martin
http://a-drifting-cowboy.blogspot.com/2016/08/a-canoe-load-of-french-canadian.html

1710s

1712 - New France extends from Newfoundland to Lake Superior and from the Hudson Bay to the Gulf of Mexico.

1712 - Michel Bégon becomes intendant of New France

1712 - Wars with the Fox Indians began. The Fox closed the trading route of the Fox and Wisconsin Rivers. Trade throughout the upper Mississippi region was disrupted.

1713 - French colonists in all of North America number about twelve thousand, while British colonists numbered almost one million.

1713 - British destroy fort St. Louis when left vacant.

1717 - French banker John Law’s Mississippi Company sets up business in Louisiana and the Mississippi River basin.

1719 - Jacques David appointed royal notary of Montreal.

Pierre Gagne (Gagnier) (1645-1726) (8th great-grandfather)
son of Pierre Gagne (Gasnier) (1610-1656) and Marguerite Roset (Rouzee) (1615-1685)
• 1712, Jean Baptiste Forestier hired Pierre Gagné to make a voyage to Détroit, notary Antoine Adhémar.
Birth 24 FEB 1645 • Le Mans, Sarthe, Pays de la Loire, France
Death 26 MAR 1726 • La Prairie, Québec
Marriage 1670 to Catherine Daubigeon (1653–1712)

Charles Diel (1688-1734) (7th great-grandfather)
son of Charles Diel dit Le Petit Breton (1652–1702) and Marie Anne Picard (1663–1697)
• 1713 – Gilles Lecours and Charles Cusson hired Charles Diel to make a voyage to Détroit [Antoine Adhémar].
• 1718 - On  28  May  1718, Pierre  Roy hired  Charles  Diel  to make  a  voyage  to  Détroit  [RAPQ1930, p. 223 - also  see  the  entries  for  François  Roy,  Étienne  Roy,  and  Louis Roy  for  this  same time  period].
Birth 5 AUG 1688 • Laprairie, Quebec, Canada
Death 21 JUN 1734 • Chambly, Quebec, Canada
Marriage 1716 to Jeanne Boyer (1694–1730) (7th great-grandmother) (2) 1732 to Marguerite Robert (1683 - 1766)

Jean Baptiste Moreau (1657–1727) (8th great-grandfather)
son of Jean Moreau (1635–1710) and Catherine Leroux (1635–1689)
• 1716, Nicolas Perttuis embauché Jean Moreau voyageur de Batiscan aller à Michilimackinac, notary Adhemar.
Birth ABT 1657 • Parthenay, Deux-Sevres, Poitou-Charentes, France
Death 25 AUG 1727 • Québec, Quebec, Canada
Marriage 1692 to Marie Anne Rodrigue (1673–1720)

1720s

Jacques Pinsonneau dit Lafleur (1682–1773) (6th great-grandfather)
son of François Pinsonneau dit Lafleur (1646–1731) and Anne LeBer (1647–1732)
• given the family connection to the fur trade it is likely he was a Coureurs des bois.
Birth 13 APR 1682 • Contrecoeur, Quebec, Canada
Death 22 MAR 1773 • La Prairie, Quebec, Canada
Marriage 1712 to Marie Elisabeth Bourassa (1695-1766)

Joseph Poupart (1696 - 1726) (7th great-grandfather)
son of Pierre Poupart (1653–1699) and Marguerite Perras dit La Fontaine (1665–1708)
• 1723, August 27, Charles Chesne embauché Joseph Poupart voyageur de LaPrairie, aller à Détroit, Notary Adhémar.
Birth 8 JUN 1696 • Laprairie, Quebec, Canada
Death 16 APR 1726 • Montréal, Quebec, Canada
Marriage 1724 to Marie Anne Lemieux (1706–1777)

Marie Elisabeth Bourassa (1695-1766) (6th great-grandmother)
daughter of Francois Bourassa (1659–1708) and Marie Le Ber (1666–1756)
• The story of the Bourassa family is somewhat typical of the times. Marie's father, Francois Bourassa (a native of France,) married Marie Leber, the daughter of LaPrairie pioneers Francois Leber and Jeanne Testard. After five years of marriage, Francois was captured during a skirmish with the Iroquois and presumed dead but returned after a prolonged absence. Francis and Marie had seven children, with five living to adulthood.
• Francois Bourassa had two concessions of land and also a home in the village of LaPrairie but had prospered even more by being involved as a fur trader in the west. When Francois died at age 48 in an epidemic at Montreal, Marie married a third time to Pierre Herve. Like most of the families of LaPrairie at this time, the Bourassa family watched their sons head west to make a profit in the fur trade.
Birth 25 FEB 1695 • Laprairie, Quebec, Canada
Death 22 NOV 1766 • La Prairie (Notre-Dame-de-LaPrairie-de-la-Madeleine), Québec
Marriage 1712 to Jacques Pinsonneau dit Lafleur (1682–1773)

Jean Baptiste Neveu (1676-1754) (1st cousin 9x removed)
son of Denise Sevestre (1632–1700) and Philipe Neveu (Nepveu) (1634–1720)
• (also written Nepveu; he is sometimes called Sieur de La Bretonnière), merchant and trader, seigneur; baptized Jean on 20 Dec. 1676 in Quebec, son of Philippe Neveu, a tailor, and Marie-Denise Sevestre; d. 24 June 1754 in Montreal.
In January 1701, he left Quebec to settle in Montreal, where he appeared as a merchant. His business enterprise, located on Rue Saint-Paul, brought him large profits which enabled him to finance numerous fur-trading trips throughout the pays d’en haut and to organize for himself several of these lucrative expeditions. In 1709 he acquired from his brother Jacques for 200 livres a slave named Marie, who was 11 years old and of the Pawnee tribe.
His financial situation soon enabled him to diversify his investments, and on 28 Nov. 1710 he bought the seigneury of Dautré, situated on the St Lawrence. Five years later, on 21 Sept. 1715, he purchased from the Sulpicians a piece of land situated on Rue Saint-Paul where he had a two-storey stone house built for himself. Then from 1717 on he increased his investments in land; he bought from different owners the seigneury of Lanoraie, which belonged to him in its entirety in 1721. In that year his house on Rue Saint-Paul was destroyed by fire; the recognition of sovereignty and census of Montreal Island in 1731 tells us that at that date it had been rebuilt on the same site and to almost identical dimensions. On 4 July 1739 Governor Charles de Beauharnois and Intendant Hocquart granted him the land at the back of his two seigneuries, extending to the Rivière L’Assomption. This piece of land and his two seigneuries were incorporated into a single seigneury which was called Lanoraie.
Neveu developed his vast domain wisely and encouraged settlement. He had a tar kiln, sawmill, and flour mill built on his lands. He also had built, at his own expense, the first chapel and the presbytery of Lanoraie. In 1744 he gave the site for the building of the first stone church, then in 1752 he made over to the council of the parish, free of charge, a piece of land of 120 acres.
Like many other merchants, Jean-Baptiste Neveu was a churchwarden of the parish of Notre-Dame de Montréal; he exercised this responsibility from 1706 to 1709. He was also a member of the militia of the government of Montreal. In 1720 he was a captain, and in 1737 and 1741 he held the rank of colonel, which he seems to have retained until his death in 1754.
On 24 Jan. 1702, in Montreal, he had married Marie-Jeanne Passard; of this marriage a daughter was born. Having lost his wife on 3 Feb. 1703, he married Françoise-Élisabeth Legras in Montreal on 27 July 1704; of his second marriage 14 children were born. His wife survived him, dying in 1771. Source: The Fur Trade in Canada: An Introduction to Canadian Economic History, by Harold Adams Innis.
Birth 19 DÉCEMBRE 1676 • Quebec Quebec, Canada
Death 25 JUN 1754 • Montréal, Quebec, Canada
Marriage (1) 1702 to Marie Jeanne Passard (1681–1703); Marriage (2) 1704 to Françoise Legras (1687–1724)
http://a-drifting-cowboy.blogspot.com/2016/07/great-aunt-denise-was-mother-of.html

Jean Baptiste Amiot (Amyot) (1693 - 1763) (1st cousin 8x removed)
son of Pierre Amiot (Amyot) dit Villeneuve (1653–1714) and Louise Renard Dodier (1651–1724)
• BEF 1724 Jean Baptiste Amiot came to Michilimackinac, where he was employed as a blacksmith by the Jesuit priest.
http://www.biographi.ca/en/bio/amiot_jean_baptiste_1717_69_3E.html
Birth 24 DEC 1693 • Neuville, Quebec, Canada
Death AFT 1763 • Green Bay, Wisconsin
Marriage ABT 1715 to Marie Anne Kitoulagué (1700–1758) (Sauvagesse)

Alexis Rivet (1693-1757) (8th great-uncle)
son of Maurice Rivet (1642–1712) and Marie Cusson (1658–1732)
• 1728, hired as a voyageur to go to Détroit du lac Érié.
Birth 25 NOV 1693 • Cap-de-la-Madeleine, Quebec, Canada
Death 17 SEP 1757 • St-Sulpice, L'Assomption, Québec, Canada
Marriage 1721 to Marie Anne Magneron (Migneron) (1703–1775)
http://a-drifting-cowboy.blogspot.com/2016/08/a-canoe-load-of-french-canadian.html

1730s

1730 - The Fox Wars ended. The Fox had nearly been exterminated by the French and their Indian allies. The trade routes reopened, but changes had occurred. Indian middlemen traders were eliminated. Trade goods were carried west by licensed traders and brought directly to the Indians.
The truce between the Ojibwe and Dakota was broken. The Dakota had previously allowed the Ojibwe to hunt on their lands and in exchange the Dakota had allowed trade goods to travel through to the Ojibwe. Now the Dakota had direct access to the trade goods and no longer needed the Ojibwe. An attempt was made to push the Ojibwe off Dakota lands, but within 50 years the Ojibwe succeeded in driving the Dakota out of their eastern woodlands.

1731 - Beginning of the construction of the Chemin du roy between Quebec City and Montreal.

1734 - Marie-Joseph Angélique , a black slave, is hanged for burning the house of her owner.

Louis Courville Barrette (Baret) (1717-1753) (6th great-grandfather)
son of Guillaume Barrette (1678–1745) and Jeanne Gagné (1683–1719)
• father and brother of voyageurs.
Birth 24 FEB 1717 • Napierville, Quebec, Canada
Death 30 JAN 1753 • St Constant, Lapriaire, Quebec, Canada
Marriage 1741 to Marie Josephe Poupart (1725–1799)

Pierre Barette dit Courville (1708-1755) (7th great-uncle)
son of Guillaume Barrette (1678–1745) and Jeanne Gagné (1683–1719)
• 1734, engagement de Pierre Barette, de la prairie de la Madeleine, à Michel Gamelin, faisant tant pour lui que pour Pierre Gamelin, son frère, pour faire le voyage à Michilimakinac, aider à y monter un canot de marchandises et le redescendre en la présente année chargé de pelleteries)
• 1745, Permis du gouverneur de Beauharnois au sieur Rivard de partir de Montréal avec un canot équipé de sept hommes pour se rendre au poste de Michillimakinac. Défense au sieur Rivard de faire la traite ailleurs qu'au poste de Michilimackinac et ses dépendances. Rôle des engagés du dit canot: Joseph Jolier (Joliet?), Bourgeois, associé; Pierre Barette, Joseph Rhéaume, François Cardinal, Augustin Baret (Barrette?), Pierre Desnoyers, de LaPrairie; Jacques Belestre, de Maskinongé.
Birth 29 JAN 1708 • Cap-de-la-Madeleine, Quebec, Canada
Death MAY 1755 • St Constant, Lapraire, Quebec
Marriage 1731 to Marie Caille (1710–1762)

Rene Bourassa dit LaRonde (1688–1778) (6th great great-uncle)
son of Francois Bourassa (1659–1708) and Marie Le Ber (1666–1756)
• 1735, A Coureurs Des Bois, he hired engages to go to Pierre Gaultier de La Verendrye's posts at Fort St. Charles on Lake of the Woods and Fort Maurepas near the mouth of the Red River.
• 1737, Rene constructed a post and wintered at Vermillion, Minnesota, to trade with the Ojibwa. After that, most of his trade was around Michilimackinac, where he was selling goods to the Indians.
Birth 21 DEC 1688 • Laprairie, Quebec, Canada
Death 7 SEP 1778 • Mackinac Island, Mackinac, Michigan, USA
Marriage 1710 to Agnes Gagne (Gagnier) (1692–1719)

Pierre Rivet (1683-1753) (8th great-uncle)
son of Maurice Rivet (1642–1712) and Marie Cusson (1658–1732)
• 1736, Gatineau et Hamelin embauché Pierre Rivet aller à Poste de la Riviere St- Joseph Notary Claude-Cyprien-Jacques Porlier.
Birth 1683 • Cap de Madeleine, Quebec, Canada
Death 24 NOV 1753 • Saint-Sulpice, L'Assomption, Quebec, Canada
Marriage 1715 to Catherine Morisseau (1696–1751)
http://a-drifting-cowboy.blogspot.com/2016/08/a-canoe-load-of-french-canadian.html

Nicolas Pierre Rivet (1719-1811) (1st cousin 8x removed)
son of Pierre Rivet (1683–1753) and Catherine Morisseau (1696–1751)
• 1738, May 16 - Marin Hurtebize embauché Nicolas Rivet aller à poste des Illinois, Notary François Lepailleur de LaFerté.
Birth 1719 • St Sulpice, L'Assomption, Quebec, Canada
Death 1811 • Saint-Hyacinthe, Les Maskoutains, Quebec, Canada
no known marriage
http://a-drifting-cowboy.blogspot.com/2016/08/a-canoe-load-of-french-canadian.html

1740s

1743 - Louis-Joseph Gaultier de La Vérendrye and his brother, François de La Vérendrye , travelling from Fort La Reine , reach the Rocky Mountains.

1745 - The fortress of Louisbourg falls to the English.

1748 - Signature of the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle on October 17.

1748 - Roland-Michel Barrin de La Galissonière becomes interim governor of New France.

1749 - Jacques-Pierre de Taffanel, marquis de Jonquière becomes governor of New France.

Antoine Bourassa (1705-1780) (7th great-uncle)
son of Francois Bourassa (1659-1708) and Marie Le Ber (1666-1756)
• 1740, June 8, - License of Beauharnois [Governor New France (1726-1747)] to the appointed Claude and François Bizaillon, Pierre Brosseau and Antoine Bourassa to go to Philadelphia, city of New England, to attend to their affairs. They are being urged to return to Montreal in four months. Will pass through the forts of Chambly and Saint-Frédéric both in going and returning, to represent the present passport, their declaration, Minutes of visit, their effects, etc., etc. Minutes of the visit of a canoe by Claude and François Bizaillon, Pierre Brousseau and Antoine Bourassa, by François Malhiot and Me Jean Bte Adhémar notary; the Said the canoe had to go to Philadelphia (June 13, 1740).
• 1745, June 9 - Permission of the Governor of Beauharnois to Sieur Ignace Gamelin to send from Montreal a canoe equipped with seven men under the leadership of Nicolas Volant and Antoine Dubois, a bourgeois, to go to the Michillimakinac post. Defense not to make any trade or commerce with Indians elsewhere than in said post of Michillimakinac and its dependencies. Role of the engaged of the said canoe: Nicolas Volant, bourgeois, of Laprairie; Antoine Dubois, a bourgeois, of St. Francis; Pierre Gaspard, Antoine Bourassa, Joseph Bourassa, Pierre Gagnier and Jacques Saint-Pierre, of Laprairie de la Madeleine.
Birth 22 MAR 1705 • La Prairie, St Jean, PQ, Canada
Death 28 JAN 1780 • La Prairie (Notre-Dame-de-LaPrairie-de-la-Madeleine), St Jean, PQ, Canada
Marriage (1) 1729 to Marie Catherine Barette Courville (1707-1729), Marriage (2) 1731 to Marie-Anne Moquin (1713-1743)

Charles Diel (1722-1756) (7th great-uncle)
son of Charles Diel (1688–1734) and Jeanne Boyer (1694–1730)
• 1747, voyageur to Wabash, Indiana.
• 1751, voyageur to Michilimackinac.
• 1755, voyageur to Michilimackinac.
Birth 29 JAN 1722 • Laprairie,Quebec, Canada
Death ABOUT 1756
Marriage 1746 to Marie Felicite Sauve Laplante (1727–1759)

Augustin Barrette (1719-1771) (7th great-uncle)
son of Guillaume Barrette (1678–1745) and Jeanne Gagné (1683–1719)
• 1751 - Engagement de Augustin Barette aux s" Lemoine Despins frères pour aller à Michilimackinac - Étude Adhémar.)
• 1745 - Permis du gouverneur de Beauharnois au sieur Rivard de partir de Montréal avec un canot équipé de sept hommes pour se rendre au poste de Michillimakinac. Défense au sieur Rivard de faire la traite ailleurs qu'au poste de Michillimakinac et ses dépendances.
Rôle des engagés du dit canot: Joseph Jolier (Joliet?), Bourgeois, associé; Pierre Barette, Joseph Rhéaume, François Cardinal, Augustin Baret (Barrette?), Pierre Desnoyers, de LaPrairie; Jacques Belestre, de Maskinongé.)
Birth 21 JAN 1719 • Cap-de-la-Madeleine, Quebec, Canada
Death 1771 • Laprairie, Quebec, Canada
Marriage 1745 to Marie Angelique Caillé dit Biscornet (1718–1795)

Charles de Langlade (1729-1801) husband of Charlotte Ambroise Bourassa (my 1st cousin 7x removed)
son of Augustin Mouet De Langlade (1703–1777) and Domithilde Oukabe Nepveuouikabe LaFourche (1690–1782)
• 1745, Established a fur trading post at Green Bay, Wisconsin. He is called the "Father of Wisconsin." He was also a War Chief during the American Revolution.
Birth ABT 1729 • Mackinac Island, Michigan, United States
Death 26 JULY 1801 • Green Bay, Wisconsin, United States
Marriage 1754 to Charlotte Ambroisine Bourassa (1735–1817)
http://a-drifting-cowboy.blogspot.com/2016/07/charles-michel-de-langlade-fur-trader.html

1750s

1752 - Ange Duquesne, marquis de Menneville becomes governor of New France.

1754 - A census shows the population of New France to be 55,009 while in Britain’s Thirteen Colonies it has reached 1,170,800.

1754 - Beginning of the French and Indian War between Great Britain and France for control of the North American colonies. It is part of the Seven Years’ War. Trade was interrupted. Most of the licensed traders and their voyageurs were called east to fight the British.

1755 - Pierre François de Rigaud, Marquis de Vaudreuil-Cavagnal becomes governor of New France.

1755 - Beginning of the Acadian Expulsion on July 28.

1756 - New commander of the French troops Louis-Joseph de Montcalm arrives in Quebec City and is made subordinate of governor Vaudreuil.

1756 - August 29, beginning of the Seven Years’ War in Europe.

1757 - The French army takes Fort William Henry on August 9.

1758 - Battle of Fort Carillon in the night of July 7 to 8. General Montcalm 's soldiers resist the attack of General James Abercrombie. See the Battle of Ticonderoga.

1751 - Beginning of the Quebec City siege on July 12.

1759 - On September 13, the British troops of James Wolfe defeat the French troops of Montcalm in the Battle of the Plains of Abraham near Quebec City.

1759 - On September 18, Quebec City surrenders. The government of New France moves to Montreal.

Francois Moise Dupuis (1709-1764) (6th great-grandfather)
son of Moise Dupuis (Depuis) (1673–1750) and Marie Anne Christiansen (1676–1750)
• 1752, Jun 2 - Nicolas Volant hired Francois Dupuis voyageur de LaPrairie to go to Michilimackinac. Notary Adhemar.
Birth 14 FEB 1709 • La Prairie, Laprairie, Quebec, Canada
Death 19 SEP 1764 • St-Philippe, Laprairie, Quebec, Canada
Marriage 1733 to Marie Anne Roy (1712–1750)

Etienne Duquet dit Desrochers (1694-1762) (6th great-grandfather)
son of Jean Duquet dit Desrochers (1651–1710) and Catherine-Ursule Amiot (1664–1715)
• 1753, Apr 13, Toussaints Pothier embauché Étienne Duquet voyageur de LaPrairie, gouvernail, aller à Michilimackinac, notary Danré Blanzy.
Birth 15 MAR 1694 • Lauzon, Quebec, Canada
Death 1762 • La Prairie (Notre-Dame-de-LaPrairie-de-la-Madeleine), Québec
Marriage 1722 to Marie-Françoise Deneau dit Destaillis (1698–1737)

Joseph Poupart (1727-1792) (1st cousin 8x removed)
son of Jean Baptiste Poupart (1689–1730) and Marie Catherine Gervais (1689–1763)
• 1751, Jacques Quesnel hired Joseph Poupart voyageur de LaPrairie, gouvernail, aller à Illinois, notary Adhemar.
Birth 26 AUG 1727 • LaPrairie de la Madeline, Quebec, Canada
Death 20 SEP 1792 • Detroit, Wayne, Michigan, United States
no known marriage
http://a-drifting-cowboy.blogspot.com/2016/08/pierre-poupart-and-one-hundred-years-of.html

Jacques Poupart (1720-1810) (1st cousin 8x removed)
son of Jean Baptiste Poupart (1689–1730) and Marie Catherine Gervais (1689–1763)
• 1753, Apr 8, Toussaints Pothier hired Jacques Poupart voyageur de LaPrairie, gouvernail, go to Michilimackinac. Notary Danré Blanzy.
Birth 16 SEP 1720 • LaPrairie de la Madeline, Quebec, Canada
Death 17 APR 1810 • LaPrairie de la Madeline, Quebec, Canada
Marriage (1) 1751 to Marie Anne Goyau (1726–1769), (2) 1771 to Marie Josephe Demers (1724–1779)
http://a-drifting-cowboy.blogspot.com/2016/08/pierre-poupart-and-one-hundred-years-of.html

Joseph Gagne (Gagnier) (1695–1777) (8th great-uncle)
son of Pierre Gagne (Gagnier) (1645–1726) and Catherine Daubigeon (1653–1712)
• 1754, Dominique Godet hired Joseph Gagne voyageur de LaPrairie to go to Detriot, Devant or Gouvernail, Notary Louis Claude Danré de Blanzy.
Birth 18 APR 1695 • Laprairie, Quebec, Canada
Death 24 MARCH 1777 • Laprairie, Quebec, Canada
Marriage 1724 to Marie-Josephe Baudreau (1707–1792)
http://a-drifting-cowboy.blogspot.com/2016/08/a-canoe-load-of-french-canadian.html

1760s

1760 - 
New France was conquered by the British. All trading rights and privileges became British. Furs were now sent to London instead of Paris and most trade goods were supplied through London Agents.

1762 - France ceded all of its lands west of the Mississippi to Spain.

1763 - Britain tried several different arrangements to control the fur trade – imperial control, limiting trade to only five posts, and exclusive licensing. In spite of this, unlicensed traders continued to operate.

1765 - Alexander Henry received exclusive rights to trade on Lake Superior. He and his partner, Jean Baptiste Cadotte, built a post at Chequamagon and sent outfits into the Fon du Lac region.

1766 - Johnathon Carver traveled west in search of the North West passage.

1767 - Trade regulations were returned to the colonies, exclusive licenses were abolished. The start of unregulated trade increased the use of liquor in the fur trade. British traders were allowed to establish wintering posts amongst the Indians. Construction began on permanent structures at Grand Portage.

Joseph Pinsonneau (Pinsono) (1733-1779) (5th great-grandfather)
son of Jacques Pinsonneau dit Lafleur (1682–1773) and Marie Elisabeth Bourassa (1695–1766)
• 1763, April 29 - Engagement of Joseph Pinsonneault dit Lafleur, as a voyageur, to Michel Laselle, a Montreal merchant. Notary Hadiesne G.
Birth 10 APR 1733 • La Prairie, Quebec, Canada
Death AFTER 1779 • Longueuil, Quebec, Canada
Marriage 1761 to Marie Madeleine Duquet (1734–1791)

1770s

1774 - The Quebec Act became law. The western Great Lakes and all land north of the Ohio River became part of Quebec and subject to its laws and regulations. Green Bay and Prairie du Chein became interior trading centers. Traders started to exploit the region northwest of Grand Portage, but cut-throat competition reduced the profits. Small partnerships were formed to avoid or oppose the competition. The American Revolution caused some traders to avoid areas south and west of the Great Lakes and encouraged them to go north and west. Hudson Bay Company built a post on the Saskatchewan River.

1778-79 - First agreements were made between partners that would become the North West Company, the first joint stock company in Canada and possibly North America. Peter Pond traveled to the Athabaska where he gathered so many furs he was forced to leave some behind. Generally throughout the 1770’s fur trade was centered around the large posts.
The Dakota and Ojibwe were fighting for control of the St. Croix Valley so traders avoided those areas.

Pierre Barette dit Courville (1748 - 1794) (5th great-grandfather)
son of Louis Courville Barrette (Baret) (1717–1753) and Marie Josephe Poupart (1725–1799)
• 1778, ngagement de Pierre Barette" aux S" William G Jean Kay pour aller Fort Michilimackinac - Étude P. Lalanne, flls.)
Birth 2 FEB 1748 • Laprairie, Quebec, Canada
Death 31 JAN 1794 • LaPrairie, Québec
Marriage 1772 to Marie Anne Dupuis (Dupuy) (1753–1807)

Charles Boyer (1744-_) (1st cousin 8x removed)
son of Charles Boyer (1713–1801) and Jeanne Supernant (Suprenant) (1718–1717)
• He was part of an extended family who had been Voyageurs or Coureurs des bois for generations. He was a trader with the North West Company (La Compagnie du Nord-Ouest) from its beginnings in 1779 maybe through its merger with the Hudson’s Bay Company in 1821.
• 1788, Charles Boyer built NWC Fort Vermilion near the junction of the Boyer and Peace rivers.
Birth 20 SEP 1744 • Laprairie, Quebec, Canada
Death Unknown
no known marriage

Pierre Barette dit Courville (1748 - 1794) (5th great-grandfather)
son of Louis Courville Barrette (Baret) (1717–1753) and Marie Josephe Poupart (1725–1799)
• 1778, Engagement de Pierre Barette" aux S" William G Jean Kay pour aller ft Mlchilimakinac.
Birth 2 FEB 1748 • Laprairie, Quebec, Canada
Death 31 JAN 1794 • LaPrairie, Québec
Marriage 1772 to Marie Anne Dupuis (Dupuy) (1753–1807)

Jean-Baptiste Mignier (Meunier) Lagasse (Lagace) (1749-1828) (5th great-grandfather)
son of Joseph Mignier (Meunier) Lagasse (Lagace) (1706–1778) and Felicite Caouette (Cahouet) (1709–1783)
• 1778, Ezechiel Solomon hired Jean-Baptiste Meunier, voyageur de Laprairie de La magdeleine to go to Mississippi, and spend the winter, Notary Antoine Foucher.
• 1794, Jean-Baptiste Meunier and his partner, Jacques Rolland, established trading house near a village of the Ponca Indians on the Missouri River.  
• 1800, James & Andrew McGill hired Jean-Baptiste Meunier voyageur de Chambly to go to Mississippi, and spend the winter, notary Louis Chaboillez.
Birth ABT 1749 • Sainte-Anne-de-la-Pocatière
Death 15 SEP 1828 • Québec, Quebec, Canada
Marriage 1775 to Marie Judith Gravel Brindeliere (1757–1779)

1780s

1782 - The Dakota no longer had any villages north of St. Anthony Falls. A small pox epidemic killed thousands throughout the Northwest.

1784 - In January the North West Company was formed. There were 16 shares in the company. Simon McTavish and the Frobisher brothers hold six shares. The first meeting of the Montreal partners and their winterers was held that summer at Grand Portage. Grand Portage was to be the company’s rendezvous point for the next 20 years.
The Treaty of Paris had ended the American Revolution the year before but caused severe problems for the new North West Company. Some of the partners left the company forming the General Company of Lake Superior and the South.

1786 - The North West Company increased its shares to 20.

1787 - The Beaver Club was formed. It was a very selective social organization of men who had wintered in Indian country. There were 19 original members. The Hudson Bay Company built more posts in the interior because furs were being taken at the Indian camps by the North West Company.

1789 - Alexander Mackenzie searched for the North West Passage and instead reached the Arctic Ocean. Simon McTavish tried to lease transportation rights through Hudson Bay but was refused. The North West Trading Company began construction of trading boats on the Great Lakes. Jean Baptiste Perrault entered the Fon du Lac with six other traders in a two-year partnership. They built posts on the St. Louis River, Leech Lake, Pine Lake and Otter Tail Lake. John Sayer joined a one-year partnership and built a post on the St. Louis River.

1790s

1791 - Alexander Henry sent a group of traders into the northern war zone between the Ojibwe and Dakota. The first year they traded at Leech Lake and the following year at Red River. They went north and then back to Grand Portage.

1793 - Alexander Mackenzie successfully crossed the continent to the Pacific Ocean. The route that he had discovered was so bad that it was little used in the future.

1794 - Discontent among the winterers of the North West Company due to small shares and poor trade goods caused the company to increase shares to its winterers and made clerks eligible for partnership. Jay’s Treaty gave reciprocal trading rights to British and American traders, each were allowed to cross the border to trade on the other’s territory. The treaty also opened New York for direct shipment of furs from Detroit and Michilimackinac. John Jacob Astor became involved in the fur trade.

1795 - During this time Alexander Mackenzie broke from the North West Company over bad feelings with McTavish. Mackenize did not agree with some of the policies of McTavish. Subsequently the XY Company formed from several existing companies. McTavish ordered all his departments to undersell the XY traders. This in turn increased the use of rum, tobacco, blue or red laced and braided coats which the chiefs desired and the practice of trading with the Indians during drinking bouts.

1799 - Alexander Mackenzie joined the XY Company.

François Rivet (1754-1852) (2nd cousin 7x removed)
son of Nicolas Pierre Rivet (1719–1811) and Marie Madeleine Gauthier (1721–1800)
• 1791, Jacques Giasson embauché François Rivet voyageur de L’Assomption aller à Chaque fois que nécessaire (Wherever required) Nord excluded, 3 years, Notary Louis Chaboillez.
• 1803-04, Winter - St. Louis entrepreneur Auguste Chouteau obliged Captains Meriwether Lewis and William Clark by engaging eight voyageurs to paddle a cargo pirogue. Three others were hired to assist the soldiers in working a keelboat. Pierre Cruzatte le borgne (one-eye) would be the bowman while François Labiche set the stroke as the first oar. The third, François Rivet, joined the expedition at St. Charles, but agreed to go only as far as the Mandans. The Corps of Discovery wintered at the Mandan/Hidatsa villages that year.
Birth 7 JUN 1754 • St-Sulpice, l'Assomption, Quebec, Canada
Death 27 SEP 1852 • Marion County, Oregon, USA
Marriage 1839 to Theresa Tete Platte (of Flathead First Nation) (1755–1852)
http://a-drifting-cowboy.blogspot.com/2016/08/cousin-francois-rivet-mountain-man.html

Louis Pierre Barette dit Courville (1775-1831) (5th great-uncle)
son of Pierre Barette dit Courville (1748–1794) and Marie Anne Dupuis (Dupuy) (1753–1807)
• 1795, Aug 21 - Jacques & François Laselle hired Louis Barette dit Courville to go to Detroit.
Birth 12 AUG 1775 • LaPrairie de la Madeline, Quebec, Canada
Death 1831 • Montréal (Basilique Notre-Dame), Québec
Marriage 1802 to Margaret Catherine Cardinal (1785–1850)

Gabriel Pinsonneau (1770–1807) (4th great-grandfather)
son of Joseph Pinsonneau (Pinsono) (1733–1779) and Marie Madeleine Duquet (1734–1791)
• 1797, August 11 - Engagement of Gabriel Pinsonneau, of La Prairie, to Jacques & François Lasette to go to Detroit. Notary Louis Chaboillez.
Birth 5 AUG 1770 • LaPrairie-de-la-Madeleine (St Philippe), Quebec, Canada
Death 19 AUG 1807 • LaPrairie-de-la-Madeleine (Notre-Dame), Québec
Marriage 1802 to Marie-Louise Vielle (1780–1813)

Joseph Vielle dit Cossé (1767-_) (5th great-uncle)
son of Michel Vielle dit Cossé (1724-1805) and Marie Elisabeth Marier (1740-1785)
• 1797, voyageur in the employ of Alexander Mackenzie when they travelled to Grand Portage. Joseph's contract was for a 3 year period, so he obviously went further West.  Perhaps Joseph was with explorer David Thompson, who in 1797, was sent south by the North West Company (NWC) to survey part of the Canada-US boundary along the water routes from Lake Superior to Lake of the Woods to satisfy unresolved questions of territory arising from the Jay Treaty between Great Britain and the United States.
• contract: 1797, Feb 14 - Engaged as a voyageur to go to Nord Ouest [North West], Nipigon and Lac Superieur for traders McTavish, Frobisher and Company aka North West Company, Company Representative: Alexander Mackenzie).
• His contract states he is a Bowmen (Avant) the man located in the front (or bow) of the canoe who acted as the guide.
Birth 26 JAN 1767 • St-Joseph, Chambly, La Vallée-du-Richelieu, Quebec, Canada
Death Unknown
No known marriage
Note: his sister Marie-Louise Vielle (1780-1813) (4th great-grandmother) who married Gabriel Pinsonneau (Pinsono) (1770-1807) (4th great-grandfather).  Gabriel Pinsonneau was also a voyageur who travelled to Michigan in 1797, for a trading company owned by brothers Jacques and Francois Laselle.

Michel Vielle dit Cossé (1771-1810) (5th great-uncle)
sons of son of Michel Vielle dit Cossé (1724-1805) and Marie Elisabeth Marier (1740–1785)
• 1793, Engaged as a voyageur to go to dans le Nord-Ouest du Canada (far north west) for traders McTavish, Frobisher and Company aka North West Company.
• His contract states he is a Bowmen (Avant) the man located in the front (or bow) of the canoe who acted as the guide.
Birth 17 SEP 1771 • St-Joseph, Chambly, La Vallée-du-Richelieu, Quebec, Canada
Death 21 JUN 1810 • LaPrairie de la Madeline, Quebec, Canada
No known marriage
Note: his sister Marie-Louise Vielle (1780-1813) (4th great-grandmother) who married Gabriel Pinsonneau (Pinsono) (1770-1807) (4th great-grandfather).  Gabriel Pinsonneau was also a voyageur who travelled to Michigan in 1797, for a trading company owned by brothers Jacques and Francois Laselle.

Charles Mignier dit Lagace (Lagasse) (1744-_) (6th great-uncle)
son of Joseph Mignier (Meunier) Lagasse (Lagace) (1706–1778) and Felicite Caouette (Cahouet) (1709–1783)
• 1792, Mar 28 - McTavish, Frobisher & Co. (NWC) hired Charles Lagace to go to the North through Grand Portage, function Gouvernail or rudder man, notary Louis Chaboillez.
• 1800, Charles Lagace (Lagasse) was with David Thompson on the Upper Saskatchewan River.
Birth 28 NOV 1744 • Ignace, Quebec, Canada
Death Unknown
Marriage 1771 to Marie Madeleine Aubé dit Aubert (1747-_)
http://a-drifting-cowboy.blogspot.com/2016/08/uncle-charles-lagasse-on-columbia.html

François Pinsonneau (Pinsono) (1777–1824) (5th great-uncle)
son of son of Joseph Pinsonneau (Pinsono) (1733–1779) and Marie Madeleine Duquet (1734–1791)
• 1797, August 28 - Engagement of Françoisl Pinsonneau, of La Prairie, to Louis Buisson to go to Rivière des Illinois. Notary Louis Chaboillez.
Birth ABT. 1777 • La Prairie, Québec, Canada
Death ABT. 1824
Marriage ABT1806-1811 to Euphrosine Brosseau (1778-_)

Jean Baptiste Poupart (1762-1832) (2nd cousin 7x removed)
son of Jacques Poupart (1720-1810) and Marie Anne Goyau (1726-1769)
• 1799, July 19 - James Robertson & Co. hired Jean Baptiste Poupart voyageur de LaPrairie, devant, to go to Michilimackinac. Notary Chaboillez.
• 1806, Mar 19 - James & Andrew McGill & Co. hired Jean Baptiste Poupart voyageur de LaPrairie, gouvernail, to go to Michilimackinac. Notary Chaboillez. 
Birth 16 MAY 1762 • Laprairie, Quebec, Canada
Death JAN 25, 1832 • Châteauguay, Roussillon, Quebec, Canada
Marriage 1787 to Marie Suzanne Debuc (Dubuque) (1766-1844)
http://a-drifting-cowboy.blogspot.com/2016/08/pierre-poupart-and-one-hundred-years-of.html
I believe he is the same JeanBaptiste Poupart (Poupard) who is sharing property with Gabriel Pinsonault -- my 3th great-grandfather -- in Chateauguay on the 1825 Lower Canada Census, Page 1098, Publication Number MG 31 C1, FHL Film Number 2443958.

Joseph Pinsonneau (Pinsono) (1763-1820) (5th great-uncle)
son of Joseph Pinsonneau (Pinsono) (1733–1779) and Marie Madeleine Duquet (1734–1791)
• 1799, Mar 3 - McTavish, Frobisher and Co (NWC) hired Joseph Pinsonneau voyaguer de LaPrairie to go to à Detroit, Notary Chaboillez.
Birth 1763 • Laprairie, Quebec, Canada
Death AFT. 1820
no known marriage

1800s

1800 - The North West Company operated 117 trading posts.

1803 - The Americans purchased the Louisiana territory from the French. The Lewis and Clark expedition left in search of a passage to the Pacific Coast.

1804 - Simon McTavish died. Consolidation talks between North West Company and XY Company begin.

1808 - The American Fur Company was formed by J.J. Astor.

Jean-Baptiste Meunier (Mignier, Minier) Lagasse (Lagace) (1776-1835) (4th great-grandfather)
son of Jean-Baptiste Mignier (Meunier) Lagasse (Lagace) (1749–1828) and Marie Judith Gravel Brindeliere (1757–1779)
• 1800, Feb 14 - James & Andrew McGill hired Jean-Baptiste Meunier voyageur de Chambly to go to Mississippi, and spend the winter, notary Louis Chaboillez.
1803, Oct 6 - McTavish, Frobisher & Co. (North West Company) hired Jean-Baptiste Meunier voyageur de St-André-d’Argenteuil to go to Lac De La Pluie (Rainy Lake), notary Louis Chaboillez). From the Archives of Quebec.  Notes: Go through Michilimakinac if required, make two trips from Kamanatiguià Fort to Portage de la Montagne, and give six days of drudgery - and help carry the three canoes in the land.
Birth 24 APR 1776 • Terrebonne, Quebec, Canada
Death BEFORE 1835 • St-Laurent (St-Laurent), Québec
Marriage 1799 to Marie Angelique Baret (Barette) dit Courville (1779–1815)
http://a-drifting-cowboy.blogspot.com/2016/08/great-grandfather-jean-baptiste-meunier.html

Pierre Pinsonneau (Pinsono) (1765-_) (5th great-uncle)
son of Joseph Pinsonneau (1733–1779) and Marie Madeleine Duquet (1734–1791)
• 1802, Dec 6 - McTavish, Frobisher & Co. (NWC) hired Pierre Pinsonneau to Make two voyages to Fort Kaministiquia and Portage de la Montagne, free of Nepigon, as a GOUVERNAIL. Notary Louis Chaboillez.
Birth 29 JUN 1765 • Laprairie, Quebec, Canada
Death Unknown
Marriage 1790 to Anne-Felicite Bisaillon (1760-_)
http://a-drifting-cowboy.blogspot.com/2016/08/uncle-pierre-norwester-goes-to-portage.html

Andre Lagasse (Mignier) dit Lagace (1775-_) (1st cousin 6x removed)
son of Charles Mignier dit Lagace (1744-1819) and Marie Madeleine Aubé dit Aubert (1747–_)
• In 1803, Andre Lagasse signed a 4 year contract to act as a guide and interpreter for the North West Company, and to go to the Red River, Swan River and Lake Winnipeg. Andre Lagasse was an Interpreter for David Thompson.
Birth 19 AUG 1775 • La Pocatière, Quebec, Canada
Death Unknown
Marriage 1798 to Marthe Thiboutot (1774-_)
http://a-drifting-cowboy.blogspot.com/2016/08/cousin-andre-lagasse-was-interpreter.html

1810s

1811 - The South West Company was formed by J.J. Astor and the head of the North West Company William McGillivray.

1812 - The war between England and the United States disrupted trade all across the continent. The North West Company began operations on the Columbia River of the Pacific Northwest.

1815 - The War of 1812 ended. The United States took back lands that had been occupied by the British, but tensions still continued. After this the United States forbid any foreign traders to operate in American territory. The North West Company withdrew.
The American Era (1816-1850)

1816 - By Congressional Act, the United States forbid foreigners to trade on US soil. The American Fur Co. hired ex-North West traders to work for them. A border war began between the North West Co. and the American Fur Co.. The old Fon du Lac District was renamed the Northern Outfit.

1818 - John Sayer’s old clerk, Joseph La Prairie began working for the American Fur Co. He continued working for them until 1821.

1820s

1821 - The North West Co. and the Hudson Bay Co. merged under the name Hudson Bay Co. A major factor in the decision to merge was the high transportation costs shipping through the Great Lakes. In addition, the Hudson Bay Co. charter had stronger legal backing to right of land by discovery than the partnership claims of the North West Co. After this time, most trade goods were shipped through Hudson Bay for the interior posts. The border war still continued between the Hudson Bay Co. and the American Fur Co. It did not end until 1833 when the American Fur Co. abandoned its posts along the border in exchange for an annual cash payment from Hudson Bay.

1824 - Trade in the Snake River area was described as very poor, but trade licenses continued to be issued until the late 1830’s.

Gabriel Pinsonneau (1803-1877) (3rd great-grandfather) (father of Lucy Pinsonneault)

son of Gabriel Pinsonneau (1770–1807) and Marie-Louise Vielle (1780–1813)
• emigrated to USA (between 1825-1830), and may have trapped to supplement farming income.
• may have been in New Orleans in and 1840, and he settled in New York before 1850.
Birth 3 MAR 1803 • La Prairie (Notre-Dame-de-LaPrairie-de-la-Madeleine), Quebec
Death 16 DEC 1877 • Wilna, Jefferson Co., NY
Marriage 1824 to Marie Emélie (Mary) Meunier Lagassé (1808–1883)

The French Canadian Heritage of Lucy Pinsonneault


Lucy Pinsonneault aka Lucy Passino was born 17 Jun 1836 in Rutland, Jefferson County, New York to Gabriel Pinsonneault (aka Gilbert Passino) and Maria Emelie Meunier Lagace (aka Mary Passino).  Lucy died on 2 Feb 1917 in Creston, Flathead Co., Montana.

For more than 15 years I have been researching the French Canadian ancestry of Lucy Pinsonneault.  The difficultly of learning about her family began with the fact that her father and mother, both born in Canada, were illiterate and probably spoke little or no English when they first emigrated to the United States about 1830.

We know Gabriel and Mary were still in Canada in 1827 when a son Francis was born there, but they had emigrated to the United States and Vermont by 1832 when their daughter Justine was born.  Lucy married John Galloway Brown on 23 Jan 1861 in Philadelphia, Jefferson Co., New York.

Preliminary notes for Lucy Passino:

Her son Abraham Lincoln Brown's death certificate listed his mother as Lucy Passneau.

Lucy Passino Brown's death certificate listed her father as Cassino born France, but her mother is unknown.  Lucy's birthplace was New York.

George Pierce, Lucy's younger brother, listed his father as Gilbert Pierce born Canada, and his mother as Mary Laggesie born France.  George's birthplace was New York.

Lydia (Brown) Bailey's family history notes listed Lucy Passino Brown, as her grandmother, and the daughter of  Gilbert Passino, born about 1815 in France, and Mary Armstrong, born about 1817.

Public records for Lucy's father Gilbert:

1825 Lower Canada Census:
    Gabriel Pinsonault, Chateauguay, Huntingdon, Quebec, Canada

1830 United States Federal Census:
    Gabriel Painsam, Vineyard, Grand Isle, Vermont

1840 United States Federal Census:
    Gabriel Passant, Orleans, Louisiana

1850 US Federal Census, Rutland, Jefferson Co., New York:
    Givarow Passinault, age 47 (1803), born Canada
    Mary Passinault, age 40 (1810), born Canada

1850 New York Agriculture Census, Rutland, Jefferson Co., New York:
    Givarow Passano

1860 US Federal Census, Wilna, Jefferson Co., New York:
    Gilbert Passino, age 57 (1803), born Canada
    Mary Passino, age 55 (1805), born Canada

1864 Wilna, Jefferson Co., New York Land Owner Map
    G. Pasino

1870 US Federal Census, Wilna, Jefferson Co., New York:
    Gilbert  Pasnan, age 68 (1802), born Canada
    Mary  Pasnan, age 62 (1808), born Canada

1870 New York Agriculture Census, Wilna, Jefferson Co., New York:
    Givarow Pasnan

1877 He is Gilbert Passino in an obituary published in the Carthage Republican (New York)

1877 The name Gilbert Passino is on his headstone in Pierce Cemetery, Wilna (Fort Drum), Jefferson Co., New York.

Getting on the right track - Pinsonneau became Passino...

From: Press Republican newspaper (Plattsburgh, New York), 24 Nov 2002

Article Title: French connection -- From street signs to surnames, French-Canadian influence on region manifests itself in many distinct ways,  By Robin Caudell Staff Writer

PLATTSBURGH — Remnants of a vibrant French Canadian past permeate the North Country.  Franco culture echoes in family surnames, names of geographical places and streets.  It is preserved in the architectural detail of private residences, commercial buildings and churches, and it’s savored in traditional recipes such as tourtiere and sliders.  "You have a sense that the culture has been fully assimilated, and there are relatively little current indications French Canadian culture existed here," said Dr. Sylvie Beaudreau, a professor of history at Plattsburgh State.

[excerpt from list] Current Name: Passino -- Original Name: Pinsonneau  Source: "Volume  III, Headstone Inscriptions, Clinton County, NY" by Clyde Rabideau Sr.

Birth:  from Quebec Vital and Church Records (Drouin Collection), 1621-1967
Gabriel Pinsonneau
Event Year: 1801-1805
Event: Naissance (Birth)
Religion: Catholique
Place of Worship: La Prairie (Notre-Dame-de-LaPrairie-de-la-Madeleine)
Province: Québec

Marriage: from Quebec Vital and Church Records (Drouin Collection), 1621-1967
Gabriel Pinsonault
Spouse: Marie Emilie Lagasse
Event Year: 1824
Event: Mariage (Marriage)
Religion: Catholique
Place of Worship: Châteauguay St-Joachim
Province: Québec

Breakthrough - Death of ‘Mary’ Émélie Meunier dite Lagacé



Find enclosed the copy of the death certificate for Mary Passino aka Émélie Meunier dite Lagacé. It is clearly indicated she was the wife of Gilbert Pinsonnault, of ( États-Unis) United States.
 
Best regards

Valdor Lagacé, président, A.F.L.L.inc.

Pinsonnault Ancestors – France - LaPrairie, Quebec, Canada - USA...

Lucy  Passino (Pinsonneau)
Birth 17 Jun 1836 in New York, United States
Death 2 Feb 1917 in Creston, Flathead, Montana, United States
Marriage to John Gallaway Brown 23 Jan 1861 Philadelphia, Jefferson, New York
John Gallaway Brown
Birth 8 Aug 1833 in Philadelphia, Jefferson, New York, United States
Death 28 Mar 1915 in Creston, Flathead, Montana, United States

Five generations of our Pinsonnaults lived in La Prairie de la Madelene, Québec, Canada just across the river from Montreal...

Parents:

Gabriel (Gilbert) Pinsonneau (Passino) (Passinault) (Pinsonneault)
Birth 3 Mar 1802 in Laprairie, Quebec, Canada
Death 16 Dec 1877 in Wilna, Jefferson Co., NY
Marriage to Marie Emélie (Mary) Meunier dite Lagacé 25 Oct 1824 St-Joachim Châteauguay, Québec
Marie Emélie (Mary) Meunier dite Lagacé
Birth 1808 in Quebec, Canada
Death 1883 in Quebec, Canada

Grandparents:

Gabriel Pinsonneault (Pinsonneau)
Birth 5 Aug 1770 in St Philippe, Quebec, Canada
Death after 1813
Marriage to Marie Vielle Cosse 8 Feb 1802 La Prairie (Notre-Dame-de-LaPrairie-de-la-Madeleine), Québec 
Marie Vielle Cosse
Birth about 1781
Death after 1813

Great Grandparents:

Joseph Jacques Pinsonneault
Birth 10 Apr 1733 in Laprairie, Quebec, Canada
Death 1779 in Longueuil, Quebec, Canada
Marriage to Madeleine Duquet 1761 La Prairie (Notre-Dame-de-LaPrairie-de-la-Madeleine), Québec
Madeleine Duquet
Birth 25 Aug 1734 in Laprairie, Quebec, Canada
Death 10 Nov 1791 in Longueuil, Quebec, Canada

2nd Great Grandparents:

Jacques) Pinsonnault dit LaFleur
Birth 19 Mar 1682 in Contrecoeur, Quebec, Canada
Death 19 Mar 1773 in Laprairie, Quebec, Canada
Marriage to Marie Elisabeth Bourassa (1695 - 1725) La Prairie, Québec
Marie Elisabeth Bourassa, daughter of Francois Bourassa, Coureur de Bois.
Birth 25 Feb 1695 in Laprairie, Quebec, Canada
Death 22 Nov 1766 in La Prairie (Notre-Dame-de-LaPrairie-de-la-Madeleine), Québec

3rd Great Grandparents -- First Immigrant Ancestors from France:

   
Francois Pinsonnault dit LaFleur served with the (Carignan-Salieres Regiment)
Birth 1646 in Saintonge, Charente-Maritime, Poitou-Charentes, France
Death 26 Jan 1731 in La Prairie (Notre-Dame-de-LaPrairie-de-la-Madeleine), Québec
Marriage to Anne Leper 1 May 1673 Sorel, Quebec, Canada
Anne Leper was a (Filles du Roi, or King's Daughters)
Birth 1647 in Luçon, Eure-et-Loir, Centre, France
Death 29 Jan 1732 in Laprairie, Quebec, Canada

Lucy’s third great grandfather Francois Bourassa, Coureur de Bois...

Lucy’s third great grandfather was Francois Bourassa who was born about 1660 in the town of Saint-Hilaire-de-Loulay France.  He arrived in New France by 16 Aug. 1683.  On 4 July 1684 he married Marie Leber at Fort Chambly.

Marie's family was very active in the fur trade, including Marie's uncle Jacques.  Francois signed on to go to Fort Michilimackinac, a French fort and trading post located along the southern shore of the strategic Straits of Mackinac connecting Lake Huron and Lake Michigan, in 1690, but did not return in the fall 1691 as planned.  What happened to Francois was unknown.  Marie believed her husband was dead and she was referred to as a widow in September 1693.  But Francois returned safe and sound next year. Subsequently, François Bourassa never leaves his family and is dedicated to the cultivation of the land at Laprairie until his death May 9, 1708, during an epidemic. Nothing prevents one of his sons, Rene, from following in the footsteps of his father and he becomes a partner of Pierre Gaultier de Varennes de la Verendrye in the fur trade and established Fort Vermilion (Manitoba) in 1736.

It all started with the Carignan-Salières Regiment

The pleas of the colonists of New France for assistance in their struggle with the Iroquois were answered in 1665 with the arrival of the first French regular troops in Canada, the Carignan-Salières Regiment.

Between June and September 1665, some 1200 soldiers and their officers arrived in Quebec, under the leadership of Lt. General Alexander de Prouville, Sieur de Tracy.

The series of forts established by the Regiment along the Richelieu River, along with the success of its second campaign into the land of the Mohawk Indians, led to a long period of peace for the colony, which permitted it to prosper. However, King Louis XIV's plan included the permanent settlement of many of the soldiers and officers in Canada. Over 450 of these troops remained in the colony, many of whom married the newly arrived filles du roi.

And a ‘Filles du Roi’ or daughters of the King

The Filles du Roi, or King's Daughters, were some 770 women who arrived in the colony of New France between 1663 and 1673, under the financial sponsorship of King Louis XIV of France. They were part of King Louis XIV's program to promote the settlement of his colony in Canada. Some 737 of these women married and the resultant population explosion gave rise to the success of the colony. Most of the millions of people of French Canadian descent today, both in Quebec and the rest of Canada and the USA (and beyond!), are descendants of one or more of these courageous women of the 17th century.

Most were single French women and many were orphans. Their transportation to Canada and settlement in the colony were paid for by the King. Some were given a royal gift of a dowry of 50 livres for their marriage to one of the many unmarried male colonists in Canada. These gifts are reflected in some of the marriage contracts entered into by the filles du roi at the time of their first marriages. Of the nearly 1000 women who undertook the journey, about 770 made it to Canada. They were promised 50 livres if they married a soldier or farmer and 100 livres if an officer. There were very few of the latter simply because there were very few officers who needed help in finding a girl of their own choice.

Nouvelle France & Fur Trade Glossary


Huronia (region): Huronia is a geographic region of southern Ontario, Canada that largely corresponds to the counties of Simcoe and Grey. The name reflects that this land was the original settlement of the Huron Amerindian Nation south and west of Georgian Bay.

Voyageur Contract Terms:
French: embauché translates to English: hired
French: aller à translates to English: go to

The Great Recruitment of 1653: (Grande Recrue -- The Great Recruitment of over 100 migrants to settle in Montreal in 1653.)

Fille du Marier: "Marriageable young girl” who was recruited to migrate between 1634 and 1662.

Fille du Roi: “King's Daughter,” a young woman who arrived in New France between 1663 and 1673 under the financial sponsorship of King Louis XIV

Bourgeois: Bourgeois, according to an 18th-century writer, were not nobles, ecclesiastics or magistrates, but city dwellers who "nevertheless by their properties, by their riches, by the honorable employments which adorn them and by their commerce are above the artisans and what is called the people." By extension, it meant the owner of a ship, the man who gave artisans work and, in Canadian usage, the fur trader employing hired men.

Coureur des bois: (French for "runner of the woods") a fur trader who went into the woods to find fur and trade fur with First Nations.
Compagnie des Habitants (or Community of Inhabitants ) is a company founded in 1645 and consists of traders in New France who owned the monopoly on the fur trade of the Company of New France from 1645 to 1663 .

Voyageurs: A person, European or Aborigianal, who transported furs, by canoe, to and from fur posts. The word is sometimes used for coureurs de bois.

Fur brigade: Convoys of Canadian Indian fur trappers who traveled between their home trading posts and a larger HBC post in order to supply the inland post with goods and supply the HBC post with furs. Travel was usually done on the rivers by canoe or, in certain prairie situations, by horse. For example, they might travel to Hudson Bay or James Bay from their inland home territories. This pattern was most prevalent during the early 19th century.

By canoes, which comprised the most common fur brigades, the trip from the home fort headed downstream in groups of four to six large thirty foot freighters with twenty-four to thirty-six voyageurs. These loads were relatively light, consisting mainly of furs. By contrast, the return voyage was upstream and involved much heavier bulkier loads, being the ammunition, traps and various other supplies needed for the next winters trapping season.

These brigades were an annual event, involving the most able and skilled men of the tribe. Depending upon distances traveled, a brigade could occupy much of July, all August and a successful return to the home fort in early September.

Samuel de Champlain: Samuel de Champlain born about 1567 and died December 25, 1635, "The Father of New France", was a French navigator, cartographer, draughtsman, soldier, explorer, geographer, ethnologist, diplomat, and chronicler. He founded New France and Quebec City on July 3, 1608.

Born into a family of master mariners, Champlain, while still a young man, began exploring North America in 1603 under the guidance of François Gravé Du Pont.  In 1608, he established the French settlement that is now Quebec City.  Champlain was the first European to explore and describe the Great Lakes, and published maps of his journeys and accounts of what he learned from the natives and the French living among the Natives. He formed relationships with local Montagnais and Innu and later with others farther west (Ottawa River, Lake Nipissing, or Georgian Bay), with Algonquin and with Huron Wendat, and agreed to provide assistance in their wars against the Iroquois.

In 1620, Louis XIII ordered Champlain to cease exploration, return to Quebec, and devote himself to the administration of the country.  In every way but formal title, Samuel de Champlain served as Governor of New France, a title that may have been formally unavailable to him due to his non-noble status.  He established trading companies that sent goods, primarily fur, to France, and oversaw the growth of New France in the St. Lawrence River valley until his death in 1635.

Seigneur: A person who owned a seigneury, which was a large area of land given to someone by the King of France.

Gouvernail: (rudder man or steersman) in the canoe. Within each fur trade canoe, less-experienced voyageurs took on role of middle paddlers called "milieux", more experienced men took up the more high-paying positions of steersman or "gouvernail" and bowsman or "avant."

Ottawa River: The Ottawa River played an integral role in many of the key stories that make up Canada’s history. It was the route for much of the early European exploration of North America, including Samuel de Champlain. Explorers in search of the Northwest Passage began their journeys along the Ottawa River. Other celebrated figures in Canadian history including Nicollet, Radisson, La Vérendrye, Dulhut and De Troyes, traveled west along the Ottawa River to establish trade relationships with First Nations communities, laying the groundwork for the fur trade.

The fur trade relied on the famous waterway routes that began and ended with the Ottawa River. France’s North American colonial economy depended on the fur trade, which led to the development of the coureurs de bois and voyageurs era, and later to the creation of the North West and Hudson’s Bay Companies. Amid the profound social, political, and economic changes of the 17th  century, the Ottawa River remained one of North America’s most important trading routes. It played a central role in the story of the fur trade in North America, and thus in the development of Canada.

Ottawa River Routes: The Ottawa River led to two strategically important sites for the fur trade: The first was Lake Temiskaming post, the largest trading post on the Ottawa under the French. The second, Michilimackinac (now called Mackinaw City, Michigan), was the fur trading hub for the Great Lakes region. It was an 18-20 day voyage from Lachine to Lake Temiskaming, or a 35-40 day voyage from Lachine to Michilimackinac. This second route was extremely important to the fur trade: following the Ottawa River to the Mattawa Forks, voyageurs would then turn west along the Mattawa River, across Lake Nipissing, along the French River, and finally, through the Great Lakes to Michilimackinac.

Voyageurs Tasks: The voyageurs’ tasks varied with the seasons. In summer, they would make long journeys into the continent’s interior, usually following the Ottawa River for much of their way. Their days of paddling were long: they would leave early in the morning and often continue until far into the night. In autumn, they would establish a winter camp near a First Nations village and a body of water. Here, they would build a fort and a few dwellings, and from this base, would trade throughout the winter with First Nations Peoples. In this way, the voyageurs would collect furs from the tribes, even those that lived at great distances. In the springtime, the voyageurs would return along the same route to Montreal. Life was so hard for the voyageurs that desertions were common.

The Canoes: The canoes used by the voyageurs were built following Aboriginal methods, but were designed to fit the colonists’ needs. A voyageur canoe could measure as much as 36 feet in length and nearly 5 feet in width. The boat bore an extremely heavy load. Eight men, each carrying a pack weighing around 40 lbs., as well as a total of 1000 lbs. of provisions, were piled in alongside 60 to 80 bundles, each weighing from 90 to 100 lbs. In total, these slight vessels would carry a load of about 4 tons. Later, canoes carrying 15 people were constructed. Made of birch bark, it was only 1/4 inch thick. Given this, navigation along the rivers was both difficult and dangerous: even a small collision with a rock or piece of floating wood could pierce the canoe’s bark and spoil its precious cargo. After every night of paddling, the canoe had to be unloaded, pulled out of the water, inspected, and repaired.

Ottawa River Portages: The Ottawa River’s rapids and waterfalls interrupted the days of regular paddling of the voyageurs. Whenever the waters became impassable, the men were forced to stop, disembark, and carry their cargo and canoes through the forest until the waters were again calm enough to continue paddling. The voyageur setting out from Lachine would have twenty portages on his way to Lake Temiskaming, and thirty-five on his way to Michilimackinac.

The majority of these portages were located on the north shore of the river, and followed already existing First Nations portage routes that they fortified to withstand the increased traffic. These portages were long and exhausting. Each man carried two or three bundles of merchandise weighing approximately 90 lbs. each. The men would often have to take several trips back and forth in order to transport all of the gear to the end of the portage route. Portages were so exhausting that the voyageurs measured the exact number of paces required to walk from the beginning to the end of each route. For example, it was recorded that the particularly challenging Grand Calumet portage measured some 2,035 paces long!


Bibliography:

1.) Minnesota, eh? a Foley/Perras Family History, by Jerry Foley.

2.) Narratives and Identities in the Saint Lawrence Valley, 1667-1720, by Linda Breuer Gray.

3.) Robidoux Chronicles: Ethnohistory of the French-American Fur Trade, by Hugh M. Lewis

4.) The French-Canadian Heritage Society of Michigan (Voyageur contracts) http://habitantheritage.org/french-canadian_resources/the_fur_trade.

5.) The Fur Trade in Canada: An Introduction to Canadian Economic History, by Harold Adams Innis.

6.) Dictionary of Canadian Biography, Vol. I, 1000-1700, by George W. Brown.

7.) Jean Durand and His Descendants, Michigan Habitant Heritage, Vol. 17 #2, Apr., 1996, by Theophile W. Denomme.

8.) Jean Durand dit LaFortune and his descendants, manuscript, Kentucky, 1944, by Elden Durand.

9.) Jean Durand et sa Posteritie, L’ Association des Familles Durand, Inc., Montreal, 1954, by Joseph Durand, C.S.V., and Viateur Durand, C.S.V.

10.) Our French-Canadian Ancestors, Palm Harbor, Fl, 1993, by Thomas J. Laforest, and Jacques Saintonge.

11.) Margry, Origines francaise, t. V. CXXII.

12.) France and England in North America, Volume I, New York, Viking Press, 1983, by Francis Parkman.

13.) A Source-book of Canadian History, Toronto, Longmans Canada Limited, 1959, by J. H. Stewart Reid, Kenneth McNaught, and Harry S. Crowe.

14.) The Legend of Louis Durand Early French Canadian Voyageur, http://www.durandfoundation.com/archives/stories/theleg.html, by Mike Durand.

15.) Caesars of the Wilderness: Médard Chouart, Sieur Des Groseilliers and Pierre Esprit Radisson, 1618-1710, by Grace Lee Nute